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Title: Large frequency change with thickness in interlayer breathing mode — significant interlayer interactions in few layer black phosphorus
Authors: Luo, Xin
Lu, Xin
Koon, Gavin Kok Wai
Castro Neto, Antonio H.
Özyilmaz, Barbaros
Xiong, Qihua
Quek, Su Ying
Keywords: Science::Physics
Issue Date: 2015
Source: Luo, X., Lu, X., Koon, G. K. W., Castro Neto, A. H., Özyilmaz, B., Xiong, Q., & Quek, S. Y. (2015). Large frequency change with thickness in interlayer breathing mode — significant interlayer interactions in few layer black phosphorus. Nano Letters, 15(6), 3931-3938. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00775
Journal: Nano Letters
Abstract: Bulk black phosphorus (BP) consists of puckered layers of phosphorus atoms. Few-layer BP, obtained from bulk BP by exfoliation, is an emerging candidate as a channel material in post-silicon electronics. A deep understanding of its physical properties and its full range of applications are still being uncovered. In this paper, we present a theoretical and experimental investigation of phonon properties in few-layer BP, focusing on the low-frequency regime corresponding to interlayer vibrational modes. We show that the interlayer breathing mode A3g shows a large redshift with increasing thickness; the experimental and theoretical results agree well. This thickness dependence is two times larger than that in the chalcogenide materials, such as few-layer MoS2 and WSe2, because of the significantly larger interlayer force constant and smaller atomic mass in BP. The derived interlayer out-of-plane force constant is about 50% larger than that of graphene and MoS2. We show that this large interlayer force constant arises from the sizable covalent interaction between phosphorus atoms in adjacent layers and that interlayer interactions are not merely of the weak van der Waals type. These significant interlayer interactions are consistent with the known surface reactivity of BP and have been shown to be important for electric-field induced formation of Dirac cones in thin film BP.
ISSN: 1530-6984
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00775
Rights: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Nano Letters, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:SPMS Journal Articles

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