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dc.contributor.authorZhou, Chengzhien_US
dc.contributor.authorLi, Danen_US
dc.contributor.authorTan, Yutongen_US
dc.contributor.authorKe, Yujieen_US
dc.contributor.authorWang, Shanchengen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Yangen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Guoweien_US
dc.contributor.authorWu, Shaofanen_US
dc.contributor.authorPeng, Jinqingen_US
dc.contributor.authorLi, Anranen_US
dc.contributor.authorLi, Shuzhouen_US
dc.contributor.authorChan, Siew Huaen_US
dc.contributor.authorMagdassi, Shlomoen_US
dc.contributor.authorLong, Yien_US
dc.identifier.citationZhou, C., Li, D., Tan, Y., Ke, Y., Wang, S., Zhou, Y., . . . Long, Y. (2020). 3D printed smart windows for adaptive solar modulations. Advanced Optical Materials, 8(11), 2000013-. doi:10.1002/adom.202000013en_US
dc.description.abstractVanadium dioxide (VO2) based thermochromic smart window is considered as the most promising approach for economizing building energy consumption. However, the high phase transition temperature (τc), low luminous transmission (Tlum), and solar modulation (ΔTsol) impose an invertible challenge for commercialization. Currently, smart window research surprisingly assumes that the sunlight radiates in one direction which is obviously not valid as most regions receive solar radiation at various angles in different seasons. For the first time, solar elevation angle is considered and 3D printing technology is employed to fabricate tilted microstructures for modulating solar transmission dynamically. To maximize energy-saving performance, the architecture of the structures (tilt, thickness, spacing, and width) and tungsten (W) doped VO2 can be custom-designed according to the solar elevation angle variation at the midday between seasons and tackle the issue of compromised Tlum and ΔTsol with W-doping. The energy consumption simulations in different cities prove the efficiency of such dynamic modulation. This first attempt to adaptively regulate the solar modulation by considering the solar elevation angle together with one of the best reported thermochromic properties (τc = 40 °C, Tlum(average) = 40.8%, ΔTsol = 23.3%) may open a new era of real-world-scenario smart window research.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNRF (Natl Research Foundation, S’pore)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMOE (Min. of Education, S’pore)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofAdvanced Optical Materialsen_US
dc.rightsThis is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Zhou, C., Li, D., Tan, Y., Ke, Y., Wang, S., Zhou, Y., . . . Long, Y. (2020). 3D printed smart windows for adaptive solar modulations. Advanced Optical Materials, xxx, 2000013-, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.en_US
dc.title3D printed smart windows for adaptive solar modulationsen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Materials Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolInterdisciplinary Graduate School (IGS)en_US
dc.contributor.organizationSingapore-HUJ Alliance for Research and Enterpriseen_US
dc.contributor.organizationNanomaterials for Energy and Energy Water Nexusen_US
dc.contributor.organizationCampus for Research Excellence and Technological Enterpriseen_US
dc.contributor.researchEnergy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N)en_US
dc.description.versionAccepted versionen_US
dc.identifier.spage2000013 (1 of 10)en_US
dc.identifier.epage2000013 (10 of 10)en_US
dc.subject.keywords3D Printingen_US
dc.subject.keywordsEnergy Conservationen_US
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Appears in Collections:ERI@N Journal Articles
IGS Journal Articles
MAE Journal Articles
MSE Journal Articles
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