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Title: An Asian study on clinical and psychological factors associated with personal recovery in people with psychosis
Authors: Lim, Madeline
Li, Ziqiang
Xie, Huiting
Tan, Bhing Leet
Lee, Jimmy
Keywords: Science::Medicine
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Lim, M., Li, Z., Xie, H., Tan, B. L., & Lee, J. (2019). An Asian study on clinical and psychological factors associated with personal recovery in people with psychosis. BMC Psychiatry, 19(1), 256-. doi:10.1186/s12888-019-2238-9
Journal: BMC Psychiatry
Abstract: Background: Despite the rising recognition of personal recovery, there is a lack of research on personal recovery in individuals with psychosis in Singapore. This study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the QPR-15 using the CHIME personal recovery framework and to examine its associations with clinical recovery factors. Methods: Sixty-six stable outpatients were recruited and assessed at two time points approximately 2 weeks apart. Convergent validity was examined through Spearman correlations with scores on CHIME-related psychological factors: connectedness (Ryff subscale- positive relations with others), hope (Herth Hope Index- abbreviated), identity (Ryff subscale- self-acceptance, Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness- Brief), meaning (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Brief Form), empowerment (Empowerment Scale). Pearson’s correlation was used to examine the test-retest reliability, while Cronbach’s alpha was used to examine internal consistency. The initial factor structure was evaluated via principal component analysis, Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP) criteria, parallel analysis, and a scree plot. Spearman correlations and hierarchical multiple linear regression (controlling for age and gender) were employed to examine the association of clinical (symptoms and functioning) and psychological factors with the QPR-15. Results: The QPR-15 demonstrated convergent validity with all CHIME-related psychological factors (rs ranged from 0.472 to 0.687). Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.934), and test-retest reliability was adequate (r = 0.708). Initial factor structure evaluations revealed a one-factor model. Correlations of clinical factors with the QPR-15 were mostly low (rs ranged from − 0.105 to − 0.544) but significant, except for depressive symptoms (CDSS: rs = − 0.529 to − 0.544), while correlations were moderate for psychological factors. Clinical factors significantly explained 28.3–31.8% of the variance of the QPR-15. Adding psychological factors significantly increased the model variance at baseline (∆ adjusted R2 = 0.369, F change < 0.001) and at time point 2 (∆ adjusted R2 = 0.208, F change < 0.001). Conclusion: Our results provide preliminary evidence that the QPR-15 has adequate psychometric properties in Singapore and encompasses the CHIME personal recovery framework. In addition, our results suggest that clinical recovery and personal recovery are not substitutes for each other but rather are complementary, thereby promoting a more holistic evaluation of recovery in people with psychosis. Implications are discussed.
ISSN: 1471-244X
DOI: 10.1186/s12888-019-2238-9
Rights: © 2019 The Author(s). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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