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Title: Socio-demographic and maternal predictors of adherence to 24-hour movement guidelines in Singaporean children
Authors: Chen, Bozhi
Bernard, Jonathan Y.
Padmapriya, Natarajan
Yao, Jiali
Goh, Claire
Tan, Kok Hian
Yap, Fabian
Chong, Yap-Seng
Shek, Lynette
Godfrey, Keith M.
Chan, Shiao-Yng
Eriksson, Johan Gunnar
Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk
Keywords: Science::Medicine
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Chen, B., Bernard, J. Y., Padmapriya, N., Yao, J., Goh, C., Tan, K. H., . . . Müller-Riemenschneider, F. (2019). Socio-demographic and maternal predictors of adherence to 24-hour movement guidelines in Singaporean children. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 16(1), 70-. doi:10.1186/s12966-019-0834-1
Journal: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Abstract: Purpose: Integrated 24-Hour Movement Guidelines provide specific recommendations on screen viewing (SV), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep to improve health of children and youth. However, few studies have examined whether these guidelines are met in young children, particularly in Asia. We evaluated adherence to integrated and individual guidelines and its predictors in 5.5-year-old Singaporean children. Methods: Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) is a mother-offspring birth cohort study. At age 5.5 years, child SV was reported by parents. Movement behaviours (MBs) were measured continuously using wrist-worn accelerometers over 7 consecutive days and nights. For accelerometer data including ≥3 days with ≥16 h/day we estimated mean (±SD) daily MVPA, SV and nighttime sleep duration across the week. Adherence to integrated (Canadian/Australian) guidelines was defined as meeting all individual guidelines: ≥60 min of MVPA/day, ≤2 h of screen time/day, and 9–11 h of sleep/night. Socio-demographic and maternal predictors collected at pregnancy enrolment and at 26–28 weeks’ gestation were examined by multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of 864 children followed up age 5.5 years, 547 (63.3%) had both valid ActiGraph and questionnaire data (51.7% boys and 58.3% Chinese ethnicity). Children averaged 101.9 (± 88.7) min/day SV, 67.3 (± 23.7) min/day MVPA and 480.6 (± 57.2) min/night sleep. Few children met integrated guidelines. Specifically, the proportions of children who met none, SV, MVPA, sleep and integrated guidelines were 11.2, 70.2, 59.6, 13.7 and 5.5%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that maternal activity and television (TV) viewing were associated with meeting integrated guidelines (insufficiently vs. highly active (OR [95% CI]): 0.11 [0.01, 0.95]; 2–3 vs. ≥ 3 h TV: 3.52 [1.02, 12.22]). Examining higher adherence to individual guidelines, Chinese ethnicity, younger maternal age and lower maternal TV and sleep time were associated with greater SV; male sex, Malay ethnicity, higher birth order and higher maternal activity level were associated with greater MVPA; and older maternal age was associated with adherence to sleep guideline. Conclusions: Beyond individual behaviours, consideration of the full spectrum of MBs may be important to improve children’s health. However, few Singaporean children adhere to integrated 24-h movement guidelines. Maternal behaviours as early as during pregnancy could be important targets for future interventions aiming to promote these MBs in children.
ISSN: 1479-5868
DOI: 10.1186/s12966-019-0834-1
Rights: © 2019 The Author(s). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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