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Title: Salmonella in retail food and wild birds in Singapore — prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and sequence types
Authors: Aung, Kyaw Thu
Chen, Hong Jun
Chau, Man Ling
Yap, Grace
Lim, Xiao Fang
Mahathir Humaidi
Chua, Cliff
Yeo, Gladys
Yap, Hooi Ming
Oh, Jia Quan
Manogaran, Vijitha
Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige Chanditha
Maiwald, Matthias
Tee, Nancy Wen Sim
Barkham, Timothy
Koh, Tse Hsien
Gutiérrez, Ramona Alikiiteaga
Schlundt, Jorgen
Ng, Lee Ching
Keywords: Engineering::Chemical engineering
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Aung, K. T., Chen, H. J., Chau, M. L., Yap, G., Lim, X. F., Mahathir Humaidi, . . . Ng, L. C. (2019). Salmonella in retail food and wild birds in Singapore — prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and sequence types. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(21), 4235-. doi:10.3390/ijerph16214235
Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Abstract: Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is a leading cause of foodborne zoonosis. To better understand the epidemiology of human salmonellosis, this study aimed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and sequence types of Salmonella in retail food and wild birds (proximity to humans) in Singapore. We analyzed 21,428 cooked and ready-to-eat food and 1,510 residual faecal samples of wild birds collected during 2010-2015. Thirty-two Salmonella isolates from food and wild birds were subjected to disc diffusion and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Salmonella was isolated from 0.08% (17/21,428) of food and 0.99% (15/1510) of wild birds. None of the isolates from wild birds (n = 15) exhibited phenotypic resistance, while the isolates from food (47.1%, 8/17) showed a high prevalence of phenotypic resistance to, at least, one antimicrobial. These findings suggested that the avian Salmonella isolates had been subjected to less antimicrobial selection pressure than those from food samples. MLST revealed specific sequence types found in both food and wild birds. The study can guide future studies with whole-genome analysis on a larger number of isolates from various sectors for public health measures.
ISSN: 1661-7827
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16214235
Schools: School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering 
School of Biological Sciences 
Organisations: Nanyang Technological University Food Technology Centre
Rights: © 2019 The Authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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