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Title: Examining the factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in a multi-ethnic working population in Singapore
Authors: Dunleavy, Gerard
Bajpai, Ram
Tonon, André Comiran
Chua, Ai Ping
Cheung, Kei Long
Soh, Chee Kiong
Christopoulos, Georgios I.
de Vries, Hein
Car, Josip
Keywords: Science::Medicine
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Dunleavy, G., Bajpai, R., Tonon, A. C., Chua, A. P., Cheung, K. L., Soh, C. K., . . . Car, J. (2019). Examining the factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in a multi-ethnic working population in Singapore. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(23), 4590-. doi:10.3390/ijerph16234590
Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Abstract: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a widely used measure for assessing sleep impairment. Although it was developed as a unidimensional instrument, there is much debate that it contains multidimensional latent constructs. This study aims to investigate the dimensionality of the underlying factor structure of the PSQI in a multi-ethnic working population in Singapore. The PSQI was administered on three occasions (baseline, 3 months and 12 months) to full-time employees participating in a workplace cohort study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) investigated the latent factor structure of the scale at each timepoint. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) evaluated the model identified by EFA, and additionally evaluated it against a single factor and a three-factor model. The EFA identified a two-factor model with similar internal consistency and goodness-of-fit across each timepoint. In the CFA, the two- and three-factor models were both superior to the unidimensional model. The two- and three-factor models of the PSQI were reliable, consistent and provided similar goodness-of-fit over time, and both models were superior to the unidimensional measure. We recommend using the two-factor model to assess sleep characteristics in working populations in Singapore, given that it performs as well as the three-factor model and is simpler compared to the latter.
ISSN: 1661-7827
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16234590
Rights: © 2019 The Authors (published by MDPI, Basel, Switzerland). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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