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Title: General resource theories in quantum mechanics and beyond : operational characterization via discrimination tasks
Authors: Takagi, Ryuji
Regula, Bartosz
Keywords: Science::Physics
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Takagi, R., & Regula, B. (2019). General resource theories in quantum mechanics and beyond : operational characterization via discrimination tasks. Physical Review X, 9(3), 031053-. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.9.031053
Journal: Physical Review X
Abstract: We establish an operational characterization of general convex resource theories—describing the resource content of not only states but also measurements and channels, both within quantum mechanics and in general probabilistic theories (GPTs)—in the context of state and channel discrimination. We find that discrimination tasks provide a unified operational description for quantification and manipulation of resources by showing that the family of robustness measures can be understood as the maximum advantage provided by any physical resource in several different discrimination tasks, as well as establishing that such discrimination problems can fully characterize the allowed transformations within the given resource theory. Specifically, we introduce a quantifier of resourcefulness of a measurement in any GPT, the generalized robustness of measurement, and show that it admits an operational interpretation as the maximum advantage that a given measurement provides over resourceless measurements in all state discrimination tasks. In the special case of quantum mechanics, we connect discrimination problems with single-shot information theory by showing that the generalized robustness of any measurement can be alternatively understood as the maximal increase in one-shot accessible information when compared to free measurements. We introduce two different approaches to quantifying the resource content of a physical channel based on the generalized robustness measures and show that they quantify the maximum advantage that a resourceful channel can provide in several classes of state and channel discrimination tasks. Furthermore, we endow another measure of resourcefulness of states, the standard robustness, with an operational meaning in general GPTs as the exact quantifier of the maximum advantage that a state can provide in binary channel discrimination tasks. Finally, we establish that several classes of channel and state discrimination tasks form complete families of monotones fully characterizing the transformations of states and measurements, respectively, under general classes of free operations. Our results establish a fundamental connection between the operational tasks of discrimination and core concepts of resource theories—the geometric quantification of resources and resource manipulation—valid for all physical theories beyond quantum mechanics with no additional assumptions about the structure of the GPT required.
ISSN: 2160-3308
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.9.031053
Schools: School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences 
Organisations: Complexity Institute
Rights: © 2019 The Author(s). Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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