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|Title:||Hardware optimized and error reduced approximate adder||Authors:||Balasubramanian, Padmanabhan
Maskell, Douglas Leslie
|Keywords:||Engineering::Computer science and engineering||Issue Date:||2019||Source:||Balasubramanian, P., & Maskell, D. L. (2019). Hardware optimized and error reduced approximate adder. Electronics, 8(11), 1212-. doi:10.3390/electronics8111212||Journal:||Electronics||Abstract:||This paper presents a new hardware optimized and error reduced approximate adder (HOERAA), which is suitable for field programmable gate array (FPGA)-and application specific integrated circuit (ASIC)-based implementations. In this work, we consider a FPGA-based implementation using Xilinx Vivado 2018.3, targeting an Artix-7 FPGA. The ASIC-based realizations are based on a 32/28nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. Based on FPGA implementations, we note the following: (i) For 32-bit addition involving a 8-bit least significant inaccurate sub-adder, HOERAA requires 22% fewer look-up tables (LUTs) and 18.6% fewer registers while reducing the minimum clock period by 7.1% and reducing the power-delay product (PDP) by 14.7%, compared to the native accurate FPGA adder, and (ii) for 64-bit addition involving a 8-bit least significant inaccurate sub-adder, HOERAA requires 11% fewer LUTs and 9.3% fewer registers while reducing the minimum clock period by 8.3% and reducing the PDP by 9.3%, compared to the native accurate FPGA adder. Based on ASIC-style implementations, HOERAA is found to achieve the following reductions in design metrics compared to an optimum accurate carry-lookahead adder: (i) A 15.7% reduction in critical path delay, a 21.4% reduction in area, and a 35% reduction in PDP for 32-bit addition involving a 8-bit least significant inaccurate sub-adder, and (ii) a 15.3% reduction in critical path delay, a 10.7% reduction in area, and a 20% reduction in PDP for 64-bit addition involving a 8-bit least significant inaccurate sub-adder. Moreover, comparisons with other approximate adders show that HOERAA has a significantly reduced average error, mean average error, and root mean square error, while reporting near optimum design metrics.||URI:||https://hdl.handle.net/10356/142855||ISSN:||2079-9292||DOI:||10.3390/electronics8111212||Rights:||© 2019 The Authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).||Fulltext Permission:||open||Fulltext Availability:||With Fulltext|
|Appears in Collections:||SCSE Journal Articles|
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