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dc.contributor.authorKang, Jiawenen_US
dc.contributor.authorXiong, Zehuien_US
dc.contributor.authorNiyato, Dusiten_US
dc.contributor.authorYe, Dongdongen_US
dc.contributor.authorKim, Dong Inen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhao, Junen_US
dc.identifier.citationKang, J., Xiong, Z., Niyato, D., Ye, D., Kim, D. I., & Zhao, J. (2019). Toward secure blockchain-enabled Internet of Vehicles : optimizing consensus management using reputation and contract theory. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 68(3), 2906-2920. doi:10.1109/TVT.2019.2894944en_US
dc.description.abstractIn the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), data sharing among vehicles is critical for improving driving safety and enhancing vehicular services. To ensure security and traceability of data sharing, existing studies utilize efficient delegated proof-of-stake consensus scheme as hard security solutions to establish blockchain-enabled IoV (BIoV). However, as the miners are selected from miner candidates by stake-based voting, defending against voting collusion between the candidates and compromised high-stake vehicles becomes challenging. To address the challenge, in this paper, we propose a two-stage soft security enhancement solution: 1) miner selection and 2) block verification. In the first stage, we design a reputation-based voting scheme to ensure secure miner selection. This scheme evaluates candidates' reputation using both past interactions and recommended opinions from other vehicles. The candidates with high reputation are selected to be active miners and standby miners. In the second stage, to prevent internal collusion among active miners, a newly generated block is further verified and audited by standby miners. To incentivize the participation of the standby miners in block verification, we adopt the contract theory to model the interactions between active miners and standby miners, where block verification security and delay are taken into consideration. Numerical results based on a real-world dataset confirm the security and efficiency of our schemes for data sharing in BIoV.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipDefence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technologyen_US
dc.rights© 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for adverstising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. The published version is available at:
dc.subjectEngineering::Computer science and engineeringen_US
dc.titleToward secure blockchain-enabled Internet of Vehicles : optimizing consensus management using reputation and contract theoryen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Computer Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.description.versionAccepted versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsInternet of Vehiclesen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThe authors acknowledge the research scholarship given by Nanyang Technological University and the research grant of the project “Modelling of Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Walls subject to Blast and Fragment Loadings” from the Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA), Singapore under the Project Agreement (PA) NO: DSTOOOEP016000821. The authors are grateful for their support in this research.en_US
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