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dc.contributor.authorTay, Ming Fengen_US
dc.contributor.authorLee, Seonkien_US
dc.contributor.authorXu, Huijuanen_US
dc.contributor.authorJeong, Kwanhoen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Changen_US
dc.contributor.authorCornelissen, Emile R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWu, Bingen_US
dc.contributor.authorChong, Tzyy Hauren_US
dc.identifier.citationTay, M. F., Lee, S., Xu, H., Jeong, K., Liu, C., Cornelissen, E. R., ... Chong, T. H. (2020). Impact of salt accumulation in the bioreactor on the performance of Nanofiltration Membrane Bioreactor (NF-MBR) + Reverse Osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation. Water Research, 170, 115352-. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2019.115352en_US
dc.description.abstractThe impacts of salt accumulation, through adjusting the solid retention time (SRT), in the bioreactor on the bioprocess as well as membrane performance of a high retention nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR) and subsequent reverse osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation are addressed in this study. The build-up of salts (i.e., Ca, Mg, PO4) is a function of SRT, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and membrane rejection. Despite the accumulation of salts, both NF-MBRs at SRT of 30 and 60 days, achieved (i) similar biodegradation efficiency; (ii) excellent organic removal (> 97%); and (iii) excellent ammonia removal (> 98%). Extending the SRT could improve the microbial bio-flocculation capability, but did not influence the microbial activity, viability, and community structure. However, more severe membrane fouling was observed in the NF-MBR with elevated salt levels, which was attributed to the greater formation of calcium phosphate scale and Ca-polysaccharides complex (i.e., irreversible fouling layer) as well as the cake-enhanced-osmotic-pressure (CEOP) effect. Although both NF-MBRs produced comparable quality of permeate, a higher RO membrane fouling rate was observed when the permeate of NF-MBR with SRT at 60 days was fed to the RO system, implying organic compositions in NF-MBR permeate may influence RO performance.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofWater Researchen_US
dc.rights© 2020 Elsevier. All rights reserved. This paper was published in Water Research and is made available with permission of Elsevier.en_US
dc.titleImpact of salt accumulation in the bioreactor on the performance of Nanofiltration Membrane Bioreactor (NF-MBR) + Reverse Osmosis (RO) process for water reclamationen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchSingapore Membrane Technology Centreen_US
dc.description.versionAccepted versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsMembrane Foulingen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis research grant is supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation under its Urban Solution & Sustainability Programme and administered by PUB, Singapore’s National Water Agency. The funding support from the Economic Development Board (EDB) of Singapore to the Singapore Membrane Technology Centre (SMTC) is also acknowledged.en_US
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