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Title: Intelligent buses in a loop service: emergence of no-boarding and holding strategies
Authors: Saw, Vee-Liem
Vismara, Luca
Chew, Lock Yue
Keywords: Science::Physics
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Saw, V.-L., Vismara L., Chew, L. Y. (2020). Intelligent buses in a loop service: emergence of no-boarding and holding strategies. Complexity, 2020, 274254-. doi:10.1155/2020/7274254
Project: M4082189
Journal: Complexity
Abstract: We study how N intelligent buses serving a loop of M bus stops learn a no-boarding strategy and a holding strategy by reinforcement learning. The no-boarding and holding strategies emerge from the actions of stay or leave when a bus is at a bus stop and everyone who wishes to alight has done so. A reward that encourages the buses to strive towards a staggered phase difference amongst them whilst picking up passengers allows the reinforcement learning process to converge to an optimal Q-table within a reasonable amount of simulation time. It is remarkable that this emergent behaviour of intelligent buses turns out to minimise the average waiting time of commuters, in various setups where buses move with the same speed or different speeds, during busy as well as lull periods. Cooperative actions are also observed, e.g., the buses learn to unbunch.
ISSN: 1076-2787
DOI: 10.1155/2020/7274254
Rights: © 2020 Vee-Liem Saw et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:SPMS Journal Articles

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