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dc.contributor.authorBao, Zhenzhenen_US
dc.contributor.authorDing, Linen_US
dc.contributor.authorGuo, Jianen_US
dc.contributor.authorWang, Haoyangen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Wenyingen_US
dc.identifier.citationBao, Z., Ding, L., Guo, J., Wang, H., & Zhang, W. (2020). Improved meet-in-the-middle preimage attacks against AES hashing modes. IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology, 2019(4), 318-347. doi:10.13154/tosc.v2019.i4.318-347en_US
dc.description.abstractHashing modes are ways to convert a block cipher into a hash function, and those with AES as the underlying block cipher are referred to as AES hashing modes. Sasaki in 2011, introduced the first preimage attack against AES hashing modes with the AES block cipher reduced to 7 rounds, by the method of meet-in-the-middle. In his attack, the key-schedules are not taken into account. Hence, the same attack applies to all three versions of AES. In this paper, by introducing neutral bits from the key, extra degree of freedom is gained, which is utilized in two ways, i.e., to reduce the time complexity and to extend the attack to more rounds. As an immediate result, the complexities of 7-round pseudo-preimage attacks are reduced from 2^120 to 2^104, 2^96, and 2^96 for AES-128, AES-192, and AES-256, respectively. By carefully choosing the neutral bits from the key to cancel those from the state, the attack is extended to 8 rounds for AES-192 and AES-256 with complexities 2^112 and 2^96. Similar results are obtained for Kiasu-BC, a tweakable block cipher based on AES-128, and interestingly the additional input tweak helps reduce the complexity and extend the attack to one more round. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first preimage attacks against 8-round AES hashing modes.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNanyang Technological Universityen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofIACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptologyen_US
dc.rights© 2020 Zhenzhen Bao, Lin Ding, Jian Guo, Haoyang Wang, Wenying Zhang. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.en_US
dc.subjectLibrary and information science::Cryptographyen_US
dc.titleImproved meet-in-the-middle preimage attacks against AES hashing modesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Physical and Mathematical Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.organizationStrategic Centre for Research in Privacy-Preserving Technologies and Systemsen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementWe thank Lei Wang for helpful discussions during the early phase of this work. We would like to thank all the reviewers of ToSC 2019 for their valuable comments and suggestions, and would like to specially thank Yu Sasaki for willing to be our shepherd. This research is supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore, under its Strategic Capability Research Centres Funding Initiative (Grant No. M4062510.J30), Nanyang Technological University under grant M4082123, and Singapore’s Ministry of Education under grants M4012049, M4012153, and M4020466. Wenying Zhang is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61672330).en_US
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