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Title: Dynamic analysis of particle emissions from FDM 3D printers through a comparative study of chamber and flow tunnel measurements
Authors: Ding, Shirun
Wan, Man Pun
Ng, Bing Feng
Keywords: Social sciences::Sociology
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Ding, S., Wan, M. P., & Ng, B. F. (2020). Dynamic analysis of particle emissions from FDM 3D printers through a comparative study of chamber and flow tunnel measurements. Environmental Science and Technology, 54(22), 14568–14577. doi:10.1021/acs.est.0c05309
Project: This study was funded by the start-up grant from Nanyang Technological University, Ministry of Education MOE2016- T2-1-063, NAMIC@NTU through Grant No. 2018242, and the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore under its Medium-Sized Centre funding scheme. 
Journal: Environmental Science and Technology 
Abstract: Ultrafine particle emissions originating from fused deposition modeling (FDM) three-dimensional (3D) printers have received widespread attention recently. However, the obvious inconsistency and uncertainty in particle emission rates (PERs, #/min) measured by chamber systems still remain, owing to different measurement conditions and calculation models used. Here, a dynamic analysis of the size-resolved PER is conducted through a comparative study of chamber and flow tunnel measurements. Two models to resolve PER from the chamber and a model for flow tunnel measurements were examined. It was found that chamber measurements for different materials underestimated PER by up to an order of magnitude and overestimated particle diameters by up to 2.3 times, while the flow tunnel measurements provided more accurate results. Field measurements of the time-resolved particle size distribution (PSD) in a typical room environment could be predicted well by the flow tunnel measurements, while the chamber measurements could not represent the main PSD characteristics (e.g., particle diameter mode). Secondary aerosols (>30 nm) formed in chambers were not observed in field measurements. Flow tunnel measurements were adopted for the first time as a possible alternative for the study of 3D printer emissions to overcome the disadvantages in chamber methods and as a means to predict exposure levels.
ISSN: 1520-5851
DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.0c05309
Rights: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Environmental Science and Technology, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:SC3DP Journal Articles

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