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Title: The impact of protozoan predation on the pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae
Authors: Espinoza-Vergara, Gustavo
Hoque, M. Mozammel
McDougald, Diane
Noorian, Parisa
Keywords: Science::Biological sciences
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Espinoza-Vergara, G., Hoque, M. M., McDougald, D., & Noorian, P. (2020). The impact of protozoan predation on the pathogenicity of Vibrio cholerae. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11, 17-. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.00017
Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology 
Abstract: In the aquatic environment, Vibrio spp. interact with many living organisms that can serve as a replication niche, including heterotrophic protists, or protozoa. Protozoa engulf bacteria and package them into phagosomes where the cells are exposed to low pH, antimicrobial peptides, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, proteolytic enzymes, and low concentrations of essential metal ions such as iron. However, some bacteria can resist these digestive processes. For example, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio harveyi can resist intracellular digestion. In order to survive intracellularly, bacteria have acquired and/or developed specific factors that help them to resist the unfavorable conditions encountered inside of the phagosomes. Many of these intra-phagosomal factors used to kill and digest bacteria are highly conserved between eukaryotic cells and thus are also expressed by the innate immune system in the gastrointestinal tract as the first line of defense against bacterial pathogens. Since pathogenic bacteria have been shown to be hypervirulent after they have passed through protozoa, the resistance to digestion by protist hosts in their natural environment plays a key role in enhancing the infectious potential of pathogenic Vibrio spp. This review will investigate the current knowledge in interactions of bacteria with protozoa and human host to better understand the mechanisms used by both protozoa and human hosts to kill bacteria and the bacterial response to them.
ISSN: 1664-302X
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00017
Rights: © 2020 Espinoza-Vergara, Hoque, McDougald and Noorian. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:SCELSE Journal Articles

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