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dc.contributor.authorSubramaniam, Mythilyen_US
dc.contributor.authorAbdin, Edimanysahen_US
dc.contributor.authorVaingankar, Janhavi Ajiten_US
dc.contributor.authorSaleha Binte Shafieen_US
dc.contributor.authorChua, Boon Yiangen_US
dc.contributor.authorSambasivam, Rajeswarien_US
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Yun Jueen_US
dc.contributor.authorShahwan, Shazanaen_US
dc.contributor.authorChang, Sherilyn Huien_US
dc.contributor.authorChua, Hong Choonen_US
dc.contributor.authorVerma, Swapna Kamalen_US
dc.contributor.authorJames, Lynen_US
dc.contributor.authorKwok, Kianwoonen_US
dc.contributor.authorHeng, Derrick M. K.en_US
dc.contributor.authorChong, Siow Annen_US
dc.identifier.citationSubramaniam, M., Abdin, E., Vaingankar, J. A., Saleha Binte Shafie, Chua, B. Y., Sambasivam, R., . . . Chong, S. A. (2019). Tracking the mental health of a nation : prevalence and correlates of mental disorders in the second Singapore mental health study. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 29. doi:10.1017/s2045796019000179en_US
dc.description.abstractAims: The second Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) – a nationwide, cross-sectional, epidemiological survey - was initiated in 2016 with the intent of tracking the state of mental health of the general population in Singapore. The study employed the same methodology as the first survey initiated in 2010. The SMHS 2016 aimed to (i) establish the 12-month and lifetime prevalence and correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) (which included alcohol abuse and dependence) and (ii) compare the prevalence of these disorders with reference to data from the SMHS 2010. Methods: Door-to-door household surveys were conducted with adult Singapore residents aged 18 years and above from 2016 to 2018 (n = 6126) which yielded a response rate of 69.0%. The subjects were randomly selected using a disproportionate stratified sampling method and assessed using World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (WHO-CIDI 3.0). The diagnoses of lifetime and 12-month selected mental disorders including MDD, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, GAD, OCD, and AUD (alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence), were based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Results: The lifetime prevalence of at least one mood, anxiety or alcohol use disorder was 13.9% in the adult population. MDD had the highest lifetime prevalence (6.3%) followed by alcohol abuse (4.1%). The 12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV mental disorders was 6.5%. OCD had the highest 12-month prevalence (2.9%) followed by MDD (2.3%). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of mental disorders assessed in SMHS 2016 (13.8% and 6.4%) was significantly higher than that in SMHS 2010 (12.0% and 4.4%). A significant increase was observed in the prevalence of lifetime GAD (0.9% to 1.6%) and alcohol abuse (3.1% to 4.1%). The 12-month prevalence of GAD (0.8% vs. 0.4%) and OCD (2.9% vs. 1.1%) was significantly higher in SMHS 2016 as compared to SMHS 2010.Conclusions: The high prevalence of OCD and the increase across the two surveys needs to be tackled at a population level both in terms of creating awareness of the disorder and the need for early treatment. Youth emerge as a vulnerable group who are more likely to be associated with mental disorders and thus targeted interventions in this group with a focus on youth friendly and accessible care centres may lead to earlier detection and treatment of mental disorders.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Health (MOH)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipTemasek Foundation CLG Limiteden_US
dc.relation.ispartofEpidemiology and Psychiatric Sciencesen_US
dc.rights© 2019 The Author(s). This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en_US
dc.titleTracking the mental health of a nation : prevalence and correlates of mental disorders in the second Singapore mental health studyen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolLee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine)en_US
dc.contributor.departmentPresident's Officeen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsComposite International Diagnostic Interviewen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThe study was funded by the Ministry of Health Singapore and Temasek Foundation Innovates.en_US
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