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Title: Potential novel nutritional beverage using submerged fermentation with Bacillus subtilis WX-17 on brewers’ spent grains
Authors: Tan, Yong Xing
Mok, Wai Kit
Chen, Wei Ning
Keywords: Engineering::Chemical engineering
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Tan, Y. X., Mok, W. K., & Chen, W. N. (2020). Potential novel nutritional beverage using submerged fermentation with Bacillus subtilis WX-17 on brewers’ spent grains. Heliyon, 6(6), e04155-. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04155
Journal: Heliyon 
Abstract: Food processing generates side streams that are not fully utilized and typically treated as waste materials. One of such food by-product, brewers’ spent grains (BSG) are disposed in huge quantities from the beer industry annually. Submerged fermentation of BSG using Bacillus subtilis WX-17, without supplementary components, is herein employed. The fermentation products were extracted in the liquid phase, resulting in a potential novel nutritional beverage containing Bacillus subtilis WX-17. Bacillus subtilis WX-17, was still viable after a period of 6 weeks with a final cell count of 9.86 log CFU/mL. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) was employed for identification of the metabolites produced from the growth of Bacillus subtilis WX-17. Seven essential amino acids and citric acid cycle (TCA) intermediates were found to have increased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas all carbohydrates decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the beverage after submerged fermentation. Additionally, antioxidant activity quantified using DPPH radical scavenging activity, increased by 2.08-fold while total phenolic content increased from 125.7 ± 0.74 μg/mL to 446.74 ± 1.26 μg/mL. The results proved the potential of employing submerged fermentation of BSG using Bacillus subtilis WX-17 to produce a novel and highly nutritious beverage.
ISSN: 2405-8440
DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04155
Schools: Interdisciplinary Graduate School (IGS) 
School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering 
Research Centres: Advanced Environmental Biotechnology Centre (AEBC) 
Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute 
Rights: © 2020 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:IGS Journal Articles

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