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dc.contributor.authorLim, B. J. M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorLeong, Eng Choonen_US
dc.identifier.citationLim, B. J. M., & Leong, E. C. (2019). On the detection of anomalous seismo-ionospheric behavior in the presence of space weather stimuli for large earthquakes. Advances in Space Research, 63(6), 1961–1978. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2018.10.020en_US
dc.description.abstractAnomalous behavior of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) prior to earthquake has been observed in many studies. Evidence of such seismo-ionospheric coupling effects suggests that it is plausible to rely on TEC signatures for early earthquake warning. However, the detection of pre-earthquake TEC anomalies (PETA) has not been adopted in practice due to two pertinent issues. Firstly, the effects of space weather activity can affect TEC levels and cause anomalous behavior in the TEC. Usually arbitrary thresholds are set for space weather indices to eliminate TEC anomaly due to space weather effects. Secondly, the choice regarding moving time-window length used to characterise background variation of TEC within the statistical envelope approach has an effect on detection of PETA. While the rule-of-thumb in selecting the moving window length is to have a time window capable of capturing background variability and short-term fluctuations, the length of the time window used in the literature varies with little justification. In this study, a critical examination is conducted on the statistical envelope approach and in particular, to eliminate the effect of space weather activity without the use of arbitrary space indices to detect PETA. A two-part PETA identification procedure is proposed, consisting of wavelet analyses isolating non-earthquake TEC contributions, followed by the statistical envelope method using a moving window length standardized based on observed periodicities and statistical implications is suggested. The approach is tested on a database of 30 large earthquakes (M ≥ 7.0). The proposed procedure shows that PETA can be detected prior to earthquakes at higher confidence levels without the need to separately check for space weather activity. More importantly, the procedure was able to detect PETA for studies where it was previously reported that PETA could not be detected or detected convincingly.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipEconomic Development Board (EDB)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofAdvances in Space Researchen_US
dc.rights© 2018 COSPAR. All rights reserved. This paper was published by Elsevier Ltd in Advances in Space Research and is made available with permission of COSPAR.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Civil engineeringen_US
dc.titleOn the detection of anomalous seismo-ionospheric behavior in the presence of space weather stimuli for large earthquakesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.description.versionAccepted versionen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThe authors acknowledge use of space weather data from the NASA/GSFC's Space Physics Data Facility's OMNIWeb and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Space Weather Prediction Center. Also, GPS TEC data were provided by the International GNSS Service (IGS) and the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). The authors would also like to acknowledge the support given by Nanyang Technological University (NTU) – Satellite Research Centre (SaRC) under the project grant (EDB VELOX-CI M4061198.040.70213100) for this study.en_US
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