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dc.contributor.authorYing, Haojiangen_US
dc.contributor.authorBurns, Edwinen_US
dc.contributor.authorLin, Xinyien_US
dc.contributor.authorXu, Hongen_US
dc.identifier.citationYing, H., Burns, E., Lin, X., & Xu, H. (2019). Ensemble statistics shape face adaptation and the cheerleader effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 148(3), 421–436. doi:10.1037/xge0000564en_US
dc.description.abstractWhen confronted with a scene of emotional faces, our brains automatically average the individual facial expressions together to create the gist of the collective emotion. Here, we tested whether this ensemble averaging could also occur for facial attractiveness, and in turn shape 2 related face perception phenomena: adaptation and the cheerleader effect. In our first 2 experiments, we showed that adaptation aftereffects could indeed be shaped by ensemble statistics; viewing an increasingly unattractive group of faces conversely increased attractiveness judgments for a subsequently presented face. Not only did group adaptation aftereffects occur, but their effects were equivalent to those observed from the morphed average face of the group, suggesting that the visual system had averaged the group together. In our last 2 experiments, we showed that viewing a target face in an increasingly unattractive group led to the target being perceived as increasingly more attractive: a "cheerleader" effect. Moreover, our results suggest that this cheerleader effect likely comprises of both a social positive effect and a contrastive process, requiring variance between the surrounding and target faces; that is, the visual system appeared incapable of boosting a target's attractiveness when all of the faces in the scene were identical. Furthermore, the mean group attractiveness ratings strongly predicted both the cheerleader effect and adaptation aftereffects, with the latter 2 also interrelated. This suggests that ensemble statistics is the common underlying process linking each of these phenomena. To be perceived as beautiful, being surrounded by unattractive friends may help. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNanyang Technological Universityen_US
dc.relationMOE AcRF Tier 1en_US
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Experimental Psychologyen_US
dc.rights© American Psychological Association, 2019. This paper is not the copy of record and may not exactly replicate the authoritative document published in the APA journal. Please do not copy or cite without author's permission. The final article is available, upon publication, at: 10.1037/xge0000564en_US
dc.subjectSocial sciences::Psychologyen_US
dc.titleEnsemble statistics shape face adaptation and the cheerleader effecten_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Social Sciencesen_US
dc.description.versionAccepted versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsFacial Attractivenessen_US
dc.subject.keywordsCheerleader Effecten_US
dc.description.acknowledgementSupported by a Nanyang Technological University Research Scholarship (HY), a 929 College of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences Incentive Scheme (HX), and a Singapore 930 Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund (AcRF) Tier 1 (HX). Concept of Exp 1 was 931 presented at Asian-Pacific Conference on Vision (APCV), Aug 2015, Singapore. Parts of this 932 research (data from Exp 1 & 3) were presented at the Annual Meeting of Visual Science 933 Society (VSS), May 2017, St. Pete Beach, Florida. The research reported here forms part of 934 H. Ying’s PhD thesis at Nanyang Technological University. All data have been made 935 publicly available via the Open Science Framework (OSF) and can be accessed at 936
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