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Title: Space-time nonseparable pulses : constructing isodiffracting donut pulses from plane waves and single-cycle pulses
Authors: Zdagkas, Apostolos
Papasimakis, Nikitas
Savinov, Vassili
Zheludev, Nikolay I.
Keywords: Science::Physics
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Zdagkas, A., Papasimakis, N., Savinov, V., & Zheludev, N. I. (2020). Space-time nonseparable pulses : constructing isodiffracting donut pulses from plane waves and single-cycle pulses. Physical Review A, 102(6), 063512-. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.102.063512
Project: MOE2016-T3-1-006
Journal: Physical Review A 
Abstract: Maxwell's equations can be satisfied not only by plane electromagnetic waves, but also by more exotic space-time nonseparable electromagnetic pulses which cannot be represented as a product of time- and space-dependent functions. A family of such pulses with finite energy was identified by Ziolkowski [Phys. Rev. A 39, 2005 (1989)]. Later, Hellwarth and Nouchi [Phys. Rev. E 54, 889 (1996)] highlighted a subset of Ziolkowski's pulses, now known as flying donuts, a formation of polarization singularities of toroidal topology traveling at the speed of light. Spurred by recent advances in ultrafast and topological optics, space-time nonseparable electromagnetic excitations are now becoming the focus of growing experimental efforts as they hold promise for topological information transfer, probing and inducing transient excitations in matter such as anapole and toroidal modes. Here we demonstrate that the flying donut can be constructed from an ensemble of monochromatic plane waves with continuous spatial and frequency spectrum and hence can be generated by converting broadband conventional transverse electromagnetic pulses.
ISSN: 2469-9926
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.102.063512
Schools: School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences 
Research Centres: Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT) 
The Photonics Institute 
Rights: © 2020 American Physical Society. All rights reserved. This paper was published in Physical Review A and is made available with permission of American Physical Society.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:SPMS Journal Articles

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