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dc.contributor.authorLi, Yuanzheen_US
dc.contributor.authorWang, Yilinen_US
dc.contributor.authorXiao, Pengen_US
dc.contributor.authorNarasimalu, Srikanthen_US
dc.contributor.authorDong, Zhilien_US
dc.identifier.citationLi, Y., Wang, Y., Xiao, P., Narasimalu, S., & Dong, Z. (2020). Analysis of biofilm-resistance factors in Singapore drinking water distribution system. Proceedings of the International Conference on Oil & Gas Engineering and Geological Sciences, 558, 042004-. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/558/4/042004en_US
dc.description.abstractIn drinking water distribution system (DWDS), biofilm offers protection of bacterial community within the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) from outside stressors, including surrounding environment, predatory microorganisms and antibiotics. The growth of biofilm may increase cleaning and maintenance cost for the drinking water decontamination and expose high risk to human immune system. This article critically reviews current Singapore DWDS by analysing the leading and lagging performance of two stages, granulated active carbon (GAC) filtering and secondary disinfection by chloramine, which are highly relevant with the biofilm resistance. Furthermore, other extrinsic factors, such as pipe age and material, hydraulic retention time, seasonal change, primary ultraviolet disinfection, etc. are also reviewed. Finally, top-down approach to address the growth and biofilm resistance are proposed. Practices and technology methodology, e.g. good consumers' hygiene, nutrient removal, chlorine disinfection, probiotic approach, anti-biofouling coatings are discussed with their associated challenges and opportunities.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.rights© 2020 Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd. Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.en_US
dc.subjectScience::Biological sciencesen_US
dc.titleAnalysis of biofilm-resistance factors in Singapore drinking water distribution systemen_US
dc.typeConference Paperen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Materials Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.conference2nd International Conference on Oil & Gas Engineering and Geological Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.researchEnergy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N)en_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsSingapore Drinking Water Distribution System (DWDS)en_US
dc.subject.keywordsBiofilm-resistance Factorsen_US
dc.citation.conferencelocationDalian, Chinaen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis research was funded by MOE Academic Research Fund (AcRF) Tier 1 Project “Nano-structured Titania with tunable hydrophilic/hydrophobic behavior and photocatalytic function for marine structure application”, Grant Call (Call 1/2018) _MSE (EP Code EP5P, Project ID 122018-T1-001-077), Ministry of Education (MOE), Singapore.en_US
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