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Title: Development and validation of the Rapid Positive Mental Health Instrument (R-PMHI) for measuring mental health outcomes in the population
Authors: Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit
Abdin, Edimansyah
van Dam, Robertus Martinus
Chong, Siow Ann
Tan, Linda Wei Lin
Sambasivam, Rajeswari
Seow, Esmond
Chua, Boon Yiang
Wee, Hwee Lin
Lim, Wei Yen
Subramaniam, Mythily
Keywords: Science::Medicine
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Vaingankar, J. A., Abdin, E., van Dam, R. M., Chong, S. A., Tan, L. W. L., Sambasivam, R., . . . Subramaniam, M. (2020). Development and validation of the Rapid Positive Mental Health Instrument (R-PMHI) for measuring mental health outcomes in the population. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 471-. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-08569-w
Project: RF08–01
Journal: BMC Public Health
Abstract: Background: The multidimensional Positive Mental Health Instrument (PMHI) has 47 items and six subscales. This study aimed to develop and validate a short unidimensional version of the PMHI among Singapore’s adult resident population. Methods: Using pooled data from three earlier studies (n = 1050), PMHI items were reduced by Partial Credit Rasch Model (PCRM) runs in a random split-half sample, while psychometric properties of the resulting measure were tested through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), item response theory-graded response model and internal consistency reliability in the other half. Its reliability, construct and concurrent validity, agreement with the original scale, floor and ceiling effect, and scale estimates were further investigated in an external representative general population sample (n = 1925). Results: The average age of the participants was around 41 years. Four PCRM re-runs for item selection resulted in a 6-item unidimensional Rapid PMHI (R-PMHI). CFA confirmed the unidimensional structure of the R-PMHI in the internal (RMSEA = 0.075, CFI = 0.985, TLI = 0.974) and external (RMSEA = 0.051, CFI = 0.992, TLI = 0.987) validation samples. In the external validation sample, the R-PMHI met concurrent validity criteria, showing high agreement with the 47-item version with intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.872 (95% CI: 0.861 to 0.882) and low floor and ceiling effects. Weight-adjusted mean (SE, 95% CI) R-PMHI score in the population was 4.86 (0.2, 4.82–4.90). Conclusion: The unidimensional 6-item R-PMHI offers brevity over the original multidimensional measure while appropriately representing the positive mental health construct. Prospective studies are needed to assess its responsiveness and test-retest reliability.
ISSN: 1471-2458
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-08569-w
Rights: © 2020 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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