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dc.contributor.authorKalaivanan, Kastoorien_US
dc.contributor.authorSumartono, Firqinen_US
dc.contributor.authorTan, Ying Yingen_US
dc.identifier.citationKalaivanan, K., Sumartono, F., & Tan, Y. Y. (2020). The homogenization of ethnic differences in Singapore English? A consonantal production study. Language and Speech, [Early Access}. doi:10.1177/0023830920925510en_US
dc.description.abstractPast research on Singapore English (SgE) has shown that there are specific segmental and prosodic patterns that are unique to the three major ethnic groups, Chinese, Malay, and Indian in Singapore. These features have been highlighted as the "stereotypical" ethnic markers of SgE speakers, assuming substrate influence from the speakers' "ethnic" languages (Mandarin, Malay, and Tamil). However, recent research suggests that Singaporeans are becoming increasingly English dominant and has challenged the position of the ethnic languages as true "mother tongues" of Singaporeans. Hence, this study seeks to question if such "stereotypical" ethnic features exist, and if so, the extent to which a less dominant ethnic language would affect the phonology of speakers' English. This study looks specifically at the production of consonants /f/, /θ/, /t/, /v/, and /w/ as salient segmental features in SgE. Participants' phonetic behavior of /θ/, which was produced similarly across the three ethnic groups, disputed substrate influence. Tamil speakers were the most disparate, particularly with the /v/-/w/ contrast production. However, these deviations were often sporadic phonetic changes, which scarcely reflect robust speech patterns in the community. As a result, consonantal production in SgE is found to be largely independent of substrate influence and relatively uniform across the three ethnicities. The homogeneity observed in this study sheds light on bilinguals' acquisition of sounds, and it also provides phonological evidence toward the understanding of the evolutionary process of postcolonial Englishes.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofLanguage and Speechen_US
dc.rights© 2020 The Author(s). All rights reserved.en_US
dc.titleThe homogenization of ethnic differences in Singapore English? A consonantal production studyen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Humanitiesen_US
dc.subject.keywordsSingapore Englishen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThe author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/ or publication of this article: This research is supported by the Ministry of Education, Singapore, under its Academic Research Fund Tier 2 (MOE2015-T2-1-120).en_US
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