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dc.contributor.authorHong, Joo Youngen_US
dc.contributor.authorLam, Bhanen_US
dc.contributor.authorOng, Zhen-Tingen_US
dc.contributor.authorOoi, Kennethen_US
dc.contributor.authorGan, Woon-Sengen_US
dc.contributor.authorKang, Jianen_US
dc.contributor.authorYeong, Samuelen_US
dc.contributor.authorLee, Ireneen_US
dc.contributor.authorTan, Sze-Tiongen_US
dc.identifier.citationHong, J. Y., Lam, B., Ong, Z.-T., Ooi, K., Gan, W.-S., Kang, J., ... Tan, S.-T. (2021). A mixed-reality approach to soundscape assessment of outdoor urban environments augmented with natural sounds. Building and Environment, 194, 107688-. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2021.107688en_US
dc.description.abstractTo investigate the effect of augmenting natural sounds in noisy environments, an in-situ experiment was conducted using a mixed-reality head-mounted display (MR HMD). Two outdoor locations close to an expressway were selected for the experiment. A natural sound (birdsong or stream) along with a hologram (sparrow/fountain or loudspeaker) was projected through the MR HMD. Participants were asked to adjust the natural sound levels to their preferred level under ambient traffic noise conditions at each location. Participants also assessed the perceived loudness of traffic (PLN) and overall soundscape quality (OSQ) in conditions with and without the augmented natural sounds. The results showed that both natural sounds significantly reduced the PLN and enhanced the OSQ. No significant differences in subjective responses were found between the loudspeaker and visual representations of the natural sound source as holograms. Analysis on the preferred signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), i.e. ratio of natural sound to traffic levels, indicated a strong negative correlation between the preferred SNRs and ambient traffic noise levels. Overall, the preferred SNR of the birdsong was significantly higher than that of the water sound. Among the acoustic parameters tested, the A-weighted traffic noise level was the strongest predictor for the preferred SNR of both the birdsong and water sound. However, the correlation for the water sound was relatively higher than the birdsong. This was due to the larger variance in the subjective evaluation for the birdsong.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of National Development (MND)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofBuilding and Environmenten_US
dc.rights© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This paper was published in Building and Environment and is made available with permission of Elsevier Ltd.en_US
dc.titleA mixed-reality approach to soundscape assessment of outdoor urban environments augmented with natural soundsen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Electrical and Electronic Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchSmart Nation Laben_US
dc.description.versionAccepted versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsSoundscape Interventionen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis research/project is supported by the National Research Foundation, Singapore, and Ministry of National Development, Singapore under its Cities of Tomorrow R&D Programme (CoT Award: COT-V4-2020-1). Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the view of National Research Foundation, Singapore and Ministry of National Development, Singapore.en_US
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