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Title: Exploration of the Spanish version of the Attachment Style Questionnaire : a comparative study between Spanish, Italian, and Japanese culture
Authors: López-de-la-Nieta, Oscar
Koeneke Hoenicka, Mᵃ Alejandra
Martinez-Rubio, José Luis
Shinohara, Kazuyuki
Esposito, Gianluca
Iandolo, Giuseppe
Keywords: Social sciences::Psychology
Issue Date: 2021
Source: López-de-la-Nieta, O., Koeneke Hoenicka, M. A., Martinez-Rubio, J. L., Shinohara, K., Esposito, G., & Iandolo, G. (2021). Exploration of the Spanish version of the Attachment Style Questionnaire : a comparative study between Spanish, Italian, and Japanese culture. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 11(1), 113-128. doi:10.3390/ejihpe11010010
Journal: European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education 
Abstract: Nowadays, there are several human attachment measures, most in the form of questionnaires that assess adult attachment styles. This study investigates the use of Feeney, Noller, Hanrahan, Sperling and Berman’s five-factors Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ, 1994), based on Bartholomew’s four-factors model (1991), and Hazan and Shaver’s three-factors model (1987). Nevertheless, no robust study has explored the ASQ questionnaire in Spanish compared to other cultures, such as Italian and Japanese. Therefore, the linguistic translation of the Spanish version of the ASQ was performed, based on the back-translation methodology. The results indicate that 5-factors ASQ Spanish version explains 43.67% of the variance, similar to the original English-Australian ASQ version. The Italian and Japanese versions explain 49.37% and 52.27% of the variance, respectively. No age correlation for any ASQ factors in the Japanese sample was found; meanwhile, the Spanish and Italian cultures showed a positive correlation with age and “Confidence” and negative correlation with age and “Relationships as Secondary” ASQ factors. Some transcultural differences and possible research approaches are addressed.
ISSN: 2254-9625
DOI: 10.3390/ejihpe11010010
Schools: School of Social Sciences 
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine) 
Organisations: Department of Psychology, School of Biomedical Sciences, European University of Madrid, Spain
Department of Neurobiology & Behavior, School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Japan
University of Trento, Italy
Rights: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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