Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Occupational inhalation exposures to nanoparticles at six Singapore printing centers
Authors: Setyawati, Magdiel Inggrid
Singh, Dilpreet
Krishnan, Sriram P. R.
Huang, Xian
Wang, Mengjing
Jia, Shenglan
Goh, Bernice Huan Rong
Ho, Chin Guan
Ridhwan Yusoff
Kathawala, Mustafa H.
Poh, Tuang Yeow
Nur A'tikah Binte Mohamed Ali
Chotirmall, Sanjay H.
Aitken, Robert J.
Riediker, Michael
Christiani, David C.
Fang, Mingliang
Bello, Dhimiter
Demokritou, Philip
Ng, Kee Woei
Keywords: Engineering
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Setyawati, M. I., Singh, D., Krishnan, S. P. R., Huang, X., Wang, M., Jia, S., ... Ng, K. W. (2020). Occupational inhalation exposures to nanoparticles at six Singapore printing centers. Environmental Science and Technology, 54(4), 2389-2400. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b06984
Project: NTU-Harvard SusNano Initiative (NTU-HSPH 17001)
Journal: Environmental Science and Technology
Abstract: Laser printers emit high levels of nanoparticles (PM0.1) during operation. Although it is well established that toners contain multiple engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), little is known about inhalation exposures to these nanoparticles and work practices in printing centers. In this report, we present a comprehensive inhalation exposure assessment of indoor microenvironments at six commercial printing centers in Singapore, the first such assessment outside of the United States, using real-time personal and stationary monitors, time-integrated instrumentation, and multiple analytical methods. Extensive presence of ENMs, including titanium dioxide, iron oxide, and silica, was detected in toners and in airborne particles collected from all six centers studied. We document high transient exposures to emitted nanoparticles (peaks of ∼500 000 particles/cm3, lung-deposited surface area of up to 220 μm2/cm3, and PM0.1 up to 16 μg/m3) with complex PM0.1 chemistry that included 40-60 wt % organic carbon, 10-15 wt % elemental carbon, and 14 wt % trace elements. We also record 271.6-474.9 pmol/mg of Environmental Protection Agency-priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These findings highlight the potentially high occupational inhalation exposures to nanoparticles with complex compositions resulting from widespread usage of nano-enabled toners in the printing industry, as well as inadequate ENM-specific exposure control measures in these settings.
ISSN: 0013-936X
DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.9b06984
Rights: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Environmental Science and Technology, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:MSE Journal Articles

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Setyawati et al 2019 - MS (es-2019-06984r- R1).pdf883.79 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

Citations 20

Updated on Mar 10, 2021

Citations 20

Updated on Mar 10, 2021

Page view(s)

Updated on Dec 7, 2021

Download(s) 50

Updated on Dec 7, 2021

Google ScholarTM




Items in DR-NTU are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.