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Title: Self-adaptation of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms to hydrodynamic stress
Authors: Jara, Josué
Alarcón, Francisco
Monnappa, Ajay K.
Santos, José Ignacio
Bianco, Valentino
Nie, Pin
Ciamarra, Massimo Pica
Canales, Ángeles
Dinis, Luis
López-Montero, Iván
Valeriani, Chantal
Orgaz, Belén
Keywords: Science::Biological sciences
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Jara, J., Alarcón, F., Monnappa, A. K., Santos, J. I., Bianco, V., Nie, P., Ciamarra, M. P., Canales, Á., Dinis, L., López-Montero, I., Valeriani, C. & Orgaz, B. (2021). Self-adaptation of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms to hydrodynamic stress. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11.
Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology 
Abstract: In some conditions, bacteria self-organize into biofilms, supracellular structures made of a self-produced embedding matrix, mainly composed of polysaccharides, DNA, proteins, and lipids. It is known that bacteria change their colony/matrix ratio in the presence of external stimuli such as hydrodynamic stress. However, little is still known about the molecular mechanisms driving this self-adaptation. In this work, we monitor structural features of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms grown with and without hydrodynamic stress. Our measurements show that the hydrodynamic stress concomitantly increases the cell density population and the matrix production. At short growth timescales, the matrix mediates a weak cell-cell attractive interaction due to the depletion forces originated by the polymer constituents. Using a population dynamics model, we conclude that hydrodynamic stress causes a faster diffusion of nutrients and a higher incorporation of planktonic bacteria to the already formed microcolonies. This results in the formation of more mechanically stable biofilms due to an increase of the number of crosslinks, as shown by computer simulations. The mechanical stability also relies on a change in the chemical compositions of the matrix, which becomes enriched in carbohydrates, known to display adhering properties. Overall, we demonstrate that bacteria are capable of self-adapting to hostile hydrodynamic stress by tailoring the biofilm chemical composition, thus affecting both the mesoscale structure of the matrix and its viscoelastic properties that ultimately regulate the bacteria-polymer interactions.
ISSN: 1664-302X
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.588884
Schools: School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences 
Rights: © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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