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Title: Which factors affect willingness-to-pay for automated vehicle services? Evidence from public road deployment in Stockholm, Sweden
Authors: Chee, Esther Pei Nen
Susilo, Yusak O.
Wong, Yiik Diew
Pernestål, Anna
Keywords: Engineering::Civil engineering
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Chee, E. P. N., Susilo, Y. O., Wong, Y. D. & Pernestål, A. (2020). Which factors affect willingness-to-pay for automated vehicle services? Evidence from public road deployment in Stockholm, Sweden. European Transport Research Review, 12(1).
Journal: European Transport Research Review 
Abstract: Introduction: Travel demand and travel satisfaction of a transport service are affected by user perceptions of the service quality attributes, and such perceptions should be included in studying user willingness-to-pay (WTP) for automated vehicle (AV) services. This study applied structural equation modelling with service quality attribute perceptions as latent variables affecting WTP. Objectives: We investigated how WTP AV services are affected by socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge and experiences with AV, existing travel modes and particularly, perceptions of the associated service quality attributes. The AV services are: 1) on-demand personalised AV (PAV) service, 2) demand responsive shared AV (SAV) service, and 3) first−/last-mile automated bus (AB) service. Methods: The data were collected from 584 potential users of a first−/last-mile AB service trial operated in Kista, Stockholm. Results: Results show people hold different expectations towards each type of AV service. These expectations act as the minimum requirements for people to pay for the AV services. Respondents are found to be willing to pay more for PAV service if it is safe, provides good ride comfort, and is competitively priced relative to the price travelling by metro and train over a same distance. Other than service quality attribute perceptions, income level, existing travel modes for daily trips, familiarity with automated driving technology and AB ride experience are important factors affecting WTP for the AV services. Conclusion: The developed model can be applied to understand expectations of potential users towards a new AV service, and to identify user groups who are willing to pay the service. New AV services can thus be designed sensibly according to users’ actual needs.
ISSN: 1867-0717
DOI: 10.1186/s12544-020-00404-y
Schools: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering 
Rights: © 2020 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:CEE Journal Articles

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