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Title: Unraveling the potassium storage mechanism in graphite foam
Authors: Liu, Jilei
Yin, Tingting
Tian, Bingbing
Zhang, Bowei
Qian, Cheng
Wang, Zhiqiang
Zhang, Lili
Liang, Pei
Chen, Zhen
Yan, Jiaxu
Fan, Xiaofeng
Lin, Jianyi
Chen, Xiaohua
Huang, Yizhong
Loh, Kian Ping
Shen, Zexiang
Keywords: Engineering::Materials
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Liu, J., Yin, T., Tian, B., Zhang, B., Qian, C., Wang, Z., Zhang, L., Liang, P., Chen, Z., Yan, J., Fan, X., Lin, J., Chen, X., Huang, Y., Loh, K. P. & Shen, Z. (2019). Unraveling the potassium storage mechanism in graphite foam. Advanced Energy Materials, 9(22), 1900579--.
Project: MOE2011-T3-1-005
Journal: Advanced Energy Materials
Abstract: Potassium-intercalated graphite intercalation compounds (K-GICs) are of particular physical and chemical interest due to their versatile structures and fascinating properties. Fundamental insights into the K+ storage mechanism, and the complex kinetics/thermodynamics that control the reactions and structural rearrangements allow manipulating K-GICs with desired functionalities. Here operando studies including in situ Raman mapping and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations, in combination with density-functional theory simulations are carried out to correlate the real-time electrochemical K+ intercalation/deintercalation process with structure/component evolution. The experimental results, together with theoretical calculations, reveal the reversible K-GICs staging transition: C ↔ stage 5 (KC60) ↔ stage 4 (KC48) ↔ stage 3 (KC36) ↔ stage 2 (KC24/KC16) ↔ stage 1 (KC8). Moreover, the staging transition is clearly visualized and an intermediate phase of stage 2 with the stoichiometric formula of KC16 is identified. The staging transition mechanism involving both intrastage transition from KC24 (stage 2) to KC16 (stage 2) and interstage transition is proposed. The present study promotes better fundamental understanding of K+ storage behavior in graphite, develops a nondestructive technological basis for accurately capture nonuniformity in electrode phase evolution across the length scale of graphite domains, and offers guidance for efficient research in other GICs.
ISSN: 1614-6832
DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201900579
Rights: © 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. All rights reserved.
Fulltext Permission: none
Fulltext Availability: No Fulltext
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