Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/10356/149798
Title: Are implicit theories of intelligence and effort beliefs interdependent? Rethinking the relationship between implicit theories, effort beliefs, goal orientation and achievement outcomes in Singapore
Authors: Cher, Shi Min
Keywords: Social sciences::Psychology
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Nanyang Technological University
Source: Cher, S. M. (2021). Are implicit theories of intelligence and effort beliefs interdependent? Rethinking the relationship between implicit theories, effort beliefs, goal orientation and achievement outcomes in Singapore. Final Year Project (FYP), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. https://hdl.handle.net/10356/149798
Abstract: The implicit theories of intelligence propose that entity theorists view intellectual abilities as static, and incremental theorists believe in the malleability of intelligence through effort. Consequently, entity theorists are inclined to regard effort and ability as inversely related, while incremental theorists are more likely to hold a positive relationship between effort and ability. At the same time, people, especially those in the East, value the utility of effort. In this respect, entity theorists may not be precluded from believing in the utility of effort. This study thus seeks to examine the conflation between implicit theories of intelligence and effort beliefs, as well as their association with goal orientation and achievement outcomes. Undergraduates (N = 559) completed an online questionnaire inquiring their implicit theories, effort beliefs, goal orientation and academic achievements. Our results showed that entity theorists, like incremental theorists, believe in the utility of effort. Specifically, implicit theories and effort beliefs may be mutually exclusive, and that believing in the utility of effort may not guarantee the endorsement of an incremental theory. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analyses found that effort beliefs (i.e., the belief that effort is important for success), in addition to one’s implicit theories of intelligence, can predict goal orientation above and beyond what can be accounted for by implicit theories alone. However, effort beliefs did not predict academic achievements above and beyond implicit theories. Our findings, therefore, point to a distinction between effort beliefs and implicit theories, as well as the significance of effort beliefs in academic settings.
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/10356/149798
Fulltext Permission: restricted
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:SSS Student Reports (FYP/IA/PA/PI)

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