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Title: Laboratory and field testing assessment of next generation biocide-free, fouling-resistant slippery coatings
Authors: Basu, Snehasish
Hanh, Bui My
Muhammad Hafiz Ismail
Chua, Isaiah Jia Qing
Narasimalu, Srikanth
Sekar, Manoj
Labak, Andrew
Vena, Alex
Kim, Philseok
Galhenage, Teluka P.
Rice, Scott A.
Miserez, Ali
Keywords: Engineering::Maritime studies::Maritime science and technology
Engineering::Materials::Functional materials
Science::Biological sciences::Microbiology
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Basu, S., Hanh, B. M., Muhammad Hafiz Ismail, Chua, I. J. Q., Narasimalu, S., Sekar, M., Labak, A., Vena, A., Kim, P., Galhenage, T. P., Rice, S. A. & Miserez, A. (2020). Laboratory and field testing assessment of next generation biocide-free, fouling-resistant slippery coatings. ACS Applied Polymer Materials, 2(11), 5147-5162.
Project: MSRDP-P29 
Journal: ACS Applied Polymer Materials 
Abstract: Recent research efforts to combat marine biofouling have focused on foul-release coatings that are not harmful for the marine environment. Inspired by nature, Slippery lubricant infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) is a surface modification technology platform with excellent antiadhesive and antifouling capacities. Precommercial coatings based on the SLIPS concept have demonstrated promising results as an environmentally friendly strategy to combat marine biofouling. Here, we investigated the resistance against marine biofouling of a range of recently developed, biocide-free SLIPS commercial coatings. The fouling resistance performance was evaluated both in the lab and in the field by conducting multimonth immersion tests in high-fouling pressure environments. In the lab, we show that the coatings are able to largely deter settlement of marine mussels - one of the most invasive marine biofouling organisms - and to weaken their interfacial adhesion strength. The key design parameter of slippery coatings to minimize fouling is the thickness of the entrapped lubricant overlayer, which can be assessed through depth-sensing nanoindentation measurements. We find that the surface energy (i.e., hydrophobic versus hydrophilic), on the other hand, does not significantly influence the antifouling performance of these coatings in lab-scale studies. After immersion in the field in stagnant waters, all coatings exhibited efficient foul-release capacity against macrofoulers, whereas under stronger hydrodynamic flow conditions, only weakly attached biofilms were detected with a bacterial community composition that is independent of the surface energy. These results suggest that these large-scale paintable coatings exhibit a strong marine biofouling resistance with low maintenance costs, which represents an important advantage from a commercial application perspective.
ISSN: 2637-6105
DOI: 10.1021/acsapm.0c00916
Rights: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in ACS Applied Polymer Materials, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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