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dc.contributor.authorTan, Yong Zenen_US
dc.contributor.authorMao, Zimingen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Yanjunen_US
dc.contributor.authorTan, Wen Seeen_US
dc.contributor.authorChong, Tzyy Hauren_US
dc.contributor.authorWu, Bingen_US
dc.contributor.authorChew, Jia Weien_US
dc.identifier.citationTan, Y. Z., Mao, Z., Zhang, Y., Tan, W. S., Chong, T. H., Wu, B. & Chew, J. W. (2019). Enhancing fouling mitigation of submerged flat-sheet membranes by vibrating 3D-spacers. Separation and Purification Technology, 215, 70-80.
dc.description.abstractUnsteady-state shear is acknowledged to be more energy-efficient in the mitigation of membrane fouling. In this study, we aimed to understand the effects of three dimensional (3D)-spacer configuration and their vibrating orientation on the extent of fouling mitigation in a submerged flat-sheet membrane microfiltration (MF) system. Several types of 3D-spacers were designed and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the shear and turbulence along the membrane surface induced by vibrating 3D-spacers. The designed 3D-spacers were produced by 3D printing technique and their fouling control efficiencies were experimentally examined in a submerged flat-sheet membrane MF system with bentonite and sodium alginate as model foulants. Both simulation and experimental results revealed that the wave-like spacer (groove direction vertical to spacer movement direction) could alleviate more membrane fouling than the other designed spacers (e.g., hill-like spacer, wave-like spacer with groove direction parallel to spacer movement direction), regardless of tested permeate fluxes. Furthermore, two types of wave-like spacers were designed based on CFD simulation, in which perforation were placed on the spacer in order to enhance shear rate and provide a path for the back transport of foulants into the bulk feed. The MF membrane tests showed that the presence of either big holes (2 mm diameter) or small holes (1 mm diameter) could not benefit to reduce membrane fouling at a lower permeate flux (20 L/m² h), but the presence of small holes significantly improved membrane performance at a higher permeate flux (40 and 60 L/m² h).en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipEconomic Development Board (EDB)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofSeparation and Purification Technologyen_US
dc.rights© 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Environmental engineeringen_US
dc.titleEnhancing fouling mitigation of submerged flat-sheet membranes by vibrating 3D-spacersen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Chemical and Biomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolInterdisciplinary Graduate School (IGS)en_US
dc.contributor.researchSingapore Membrane Technology Centreen_US
dc.contributor.researchNanyang Environment and Water Research Instituteen_US
dc.contributor.researchSingapore Centre for 3D Printingen_US
dc.subject.keywords3D Printingen_US
dc.subject.keywordsComputational Fluid Dynamic Simulationen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementWe acknowledge funding from the Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Funds Tier 2 ( MOE2014-T2-2-074 ; ARC16/15 ) and Tier 1 ( 2015-T1-001-023 ; RG7/15), the GSK (GlaxoSmithKline) – EDB (Economic Development Board of Singapore) Trust Fund, and the Joint Singapore-Germany Research Project Fund ( SGP-PROG3-019 ). The Economic Development Board (EDB) of Singapore is acknowledged for funding the Singapore Membrane Technology Centre (SMTC), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.en_US
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