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dc.contributor.authorVeksha, Andreien_US
dc.contributor.authorGiannis, Apostolosen_US
dc.contributor.authorYuan, Guoanen_US
dc.contributor.authorTng, Jiahuien_US
dc.contributor.authorChan, Wei Pingen_US
dc.contributor.authorChang, Victor Wei-Chungen_US
dc.contributor.authorLisak, Grzegorzen_US
dc.contributor.authorLim, Teik-Thyeen_US
dc.identifier.citationVeksha, A., Giannis, A., Yuan, G., Tng, J., Chan, W. P., Chang, V. W., Lisak, G. & Lim, T. (2019). Distribution and modeling of tar compounds produced during downdraft gasification of municipal solid waste. Renewable Energy, 136, 1294-1303.
dc.description.abstractTar compounds produced during gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) hinder downstream utilization of syngas. This study investigated the effects of operating conditions (temperature, equivalence air ratio (ER) and MSW moisture content) during gasification using air on tar emissions. Tar was quantified by gravimetric and GC-MS methods, denoted as gravimetric and collected (GC-MS) tar, respectively. Additionally, styrene evolution was studied as it is one of the main tar compounds produced from MSW. By applying the response surface methodology for modeling, it was found that tar contents quantified by the two methods are influenced similarly by ER and MSW moisture content, but differently by temperature. This discrepancy was attributed to the different composition and properties of tar fractions measured by gravimetric and GC-MS methods. Since the selection of analytical method can have impact on the quantification of tar, adoption of different methods for the characterization of tar emissions from MSW gasifiers is essential in order to provide a holistic analysis of the tar evolution process. The content of styrene in collected (GC-MS) tar from MSW gasification was 13–29%. The lower contents of styrene were favored by operating temperature between 850 and 900 °C, higher ER and higher MSW moisture content.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipEconomic Development Board (EDB)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of the Environment and Water Resourcesen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNanyang Technological Universityen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Environmental Agency (NEA)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.relationWTE CRP 1501 105en_US
dc.relation.ispartofRenewable Energyen_US
dc.rights© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Environmental engineeringen_US
dc.titleDistribution and modeling of tar compounds produced during downdraft gasification of municipal solid wasteen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchNanyang Environment and Water Research Instituteen_US
dc.contributor.researchResidues and Resource Reclamation Centreen_US
dc.subject.keywordsMunicipal Solid Wasteen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis research is supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister's Office and the National Environment Agency, Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, Singapore under the Waste-to-Energy Competitive Research Programme (WTE CRP 1501 105). The authors also acknowledge Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore and Economic Development Board, Singapore for the support.en_US
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