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Title: Plasma branched-chain amino acids are associated with greater fasting and postprandial insulin secretion in non-diabetic Chinese adults
Authors: Ding, Cherlyn
Egli, Leonie
Bosco, Nabil
Sun, Lijuan
Goh, Hui Jen
Yeo, Khung Keong
Yap, Jonathan Jiunn Liang
Actis-Goretta, Lucas
Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing
Magkos, Faidon
Keywords: Science::Medicine
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Ding, C., Egli, L., Bosco, N., Sun, L., Goh, H. J., Yeo, K. K., Yap, J. J. L., Actis-Goretta, L., Leow, M. K. & Magkos, F. (2021). Plasma branched-chain amino acids are associated with greater fasting and postprandial insulin secretion in non-diabetic Chinese adults. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8, 664939-.
Project: 17.15.NRC
Journal: Frontiers in Nutrition
Abstract: Background: Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are consistently elevated in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and correlate with insulin resistance. The association of BCAA with insulin secretion and clearance rates has not been adequately described. Objective: To evaluate the relationships between fasting and postprandial plasma BCAA, insulin secretion and insulin clearance. Design: Ninety-five non-diabetic Chinese subjects (43 females) underwent a mixed-meal tolerance test; blood biomarkers including BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) were measured for 6 h. Fasting and postprandial insulin secretion rates (ISR) and insulin clearance were determined by oral minimal modeling of glucose and C-peptide. Results: Fasting and postprandial plasma BCAA correlated strongly with each other (ρ = 0.796, P < 0.001), and both were positively associated with basal ISR (ρ = 0.45/0.36, P < 0.001), total postprandial ISR AUC (ρ = 0.37/0.45, P < 0.001), and negatively with insulin clearance (ρ = −0.29/−0.29, P < 0.01), after adjusting for sex and body mass index. These relationships largely persisted after adjusting further for insulin resistance and postprandial glucose. Compared with subjects in the middle and lowest tertiles for fasting or postprandial plasma BCAA, subjects in the highest tertile had significantly greater postprandial glucose (by 7–10%) and insulin (by 74–98%) concentrations, basal ISRs (by 34–53%), postprandial ISR AUCs (by 41–49%), and lower insulin clearance rates (by 17–22%) (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: Fasting and postprandial plasma BCAA levels are associated with greater fasting and postprandial insulin secretion and reduced insulin clearance in healthy Chinese subjects. These observations potentially highlight an additional layer of involvement of BCAA in the regulation of glucose homeostasis.
ISSN: 2296-861X
DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2021.664939
Schools: Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine) 
Organisations: Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR
Rights: © 2021 Ding, Egli, Bosco, Sun, Goh, Yeo, Yap, Actis-Goretta, Leow and Magkos. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:LKCMedicine Journal Articles

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