Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/10356/151968
Title: Preliminary development of a bystander intervention scale for depression and the examination of socio-demographic correlates amongst Singapore university students
Authors: Ong, Wei Jie
Lau, Jue Hua
Abdin, Edimansyah
Shahwan, Shazana
Goh, Janrius Chong Min
Tan, Gregory Tee Hng
Samari, Ellaisha
Kwok, Kian-Woon
Subramaniam, Mythily
Chong, Siow Ann
Keywords: Social sciences::Psychology
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Ong, W. J., Lau, J. H., Abdin, E., Shahwan, S., Goh, J. C. M., Tan, G. T. H., Samari, E., Kwok, K., Subramaniam, M. & Chong, S. A. (2021). Preliminary development of a bystander intervention scale for depression and the examination of socio-demographic correlates amongst Singapore university students. BMC Psychology, 9(1), 67-. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-021-00573-y
Journal: BMC Psychology 
Abstract: Background: Despite peer involvement having a positive impact on help-seeking behavior, there is a lack of a scale quantifying the possibility of an individual intervening upon noticing peers who show signs of depression. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a bystander intervention scale for depression that assesses the likelihood of university students intervening when a peer shows signs of depression based on the theory of bystander intervention, (2) identify the underlying factors contributing to the behavior, and (3) explore the socio-demographic correlates of the scale. Methods: The proposed scale, the Bystander Intervention Scale for Depression (BISD), is a 17-item self-reported questionnaire that was developed based on existing bystander intervention theory and inputs from mental health experts. Data was collected as part of a larger study to evaluate the effectiveness of an anti-stigma intervention amongst university students from a local university. A total of 392 participants were recruited. Exploratory factor analyses were performed to identify the underlying factor structure. Multiple linear regressions were conducted to explore the socio-demographic correlates of the scale. Result: Four key factors were identified for the proposed scale: (1) Awareness of depression among peers; (2) Vigilance towards possible symptoms of depression; (3) Knowledge on how to intervene; (4) Acceptance of responsibility to intervene. Having experience in the mental health field was associated with all factors while having family members or friends with mental illness was associated with all factors except for knowledge on how to intervene. Students of older age were associated with higher vigilance towards possible symptoms of depression and knowledge on how to intervene. Those of non-Chinese ethnicity were associated with acceptance of responsibility to intervene. Conclusion: This study provides a preliminary tool to assess bystander intervention in depression amongst university students. This study identifies sub-groups of the student population that require more education to intervene with depressed peers and also informs the development of future strategies.
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/10356/151968
ISSN: 2050-7283
DOI: 10.1186/s40359-021-00573-y
Rights: © 2021 The Author(s). Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
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