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Title: Radar command group time entropy signature as a visual monitoring enhancement for air traffic controllers
Authors: Wee, Hong Jie
Lye, Sun Woh
Pinheiro, Jean-Philippe
Pesquet Popescu, Beatrice
Keywords: Engineering::Mechanical engineering
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Wee, H. J., Lye, S. W., Pinheiro, J. & Pesquet Popescu, B. (2021). Radar command group time entropy signature as a visual monitoring enhancement for air traffic controllers. IEEE Transactions On Human-Machine Systems, 51(4), 384-393.
Journal: IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems 
Abstract: The activity of generic flight path monitoring of an aircraft on the radar screen is one the major problem which results in air traffic controllers (ATCOs) losing awareness of it. A novel eye signature, known as the radar command group (RCG) time entropy signature, is thus presented in this paper. This signature seeks to model the monitoring behavior of ATCOs using eye-tracking technique during this activity. Acquisition and representation of this monitoring behavior is achieved by first identifying the respective fixation count and mouseover label movement on the aircraft to establish a RCG. The regularity of a RCG exhibited on an aircraft is then calculated using the information entropy formula. Real time simulations are conducted for 88 one-hour experimental sessions with licensed and non-licensed participants comprising of three expertise levels, using scenarios that mimic actual air traffic, consisting of various flight path configuration. Test results of the RCG time entropy signature showed that, an aircraft flying on a flight path with longer distance and no change in altitude likely results in a more regular generic flight path monitoring. Furthermore, it can also be used to differentiate the novice participants from intermediates and experts, as novices lack the training. An ATCO's expertise level can thus be determined and benchmarked accordingly, allowing this signature to be applied on future ATCO training.
ISSN: 2168-2291
DOI: 10.1109/THMS.2021.3076044
Rights: © 2021 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. The published version is available at:
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:ATMRI Journal Articles
MAE Journal Articles

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