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dc.contributor.authorGu, Junen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Mengen_US
dc.contributor.authorWang, Siyuen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Yuen_US
dc.identifier.citationGu, J., Zhang, M., Wang, S. & Liu, Y. (2019). Integrated upflow anaerobic fixed-bed and single-stage step-feed process for mainstream deammonification : a step further towards sustainable municipal wastewater reclamation. The Science of the Total Environment, 678, 559-564.
dc.description.abstractThe high energy consumption and excessive waste activated sludge (WAS) production have become the major concerns on the municipal wastewater treatment with conventional biological processes. To tackle these emerging issues, this study demonstrated the feasibility of a novel process integrating an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor (UAFBR) followed by a continuous step-feed reactor for mainstream deammonification towards improved energy efficiency, minimized sludge production and cost-effective ammonium removal. The results showed that 48.8% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was directly converted to methane gas in UAFBR with minimized sludge production, while 80% of total nitrogen (TN) was removed in the step-feed reactor. Mass balance on the step-feed reactor revealed that the oxic chambers contributed 51.6% of the removed ammonium oxidation to mainly nitrite, while the produced nitrite was immediately removed via anammox with the ammonium supplied by the step-feed in the following anoxic chambers where about 87.1% TN removal occurred. Moreover, it was found that sustainable repression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was achieved without compromising the activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The anammox bacteria were effectively retained in the anoxic chambers and showed a high specific anammox activity of 0.42 g N/(g VSS·day). These suggest that the step-feed configuration can offer a feasible engineering option towards single-stage mainstream deammonification. It appears that the integrated process developed in this study sheds light on the possible way towards sustainable, energy self-sufficient municipal wastewater reclamation.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofThe Science of the total environmenten_US
dc.rights© 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Environmental engineeringen_US
dc.titleIntegrated upflow anaerobic fixed-bed and single-stage step-feed process for mainstream deammonification : a step further towards sustainable municipal wastewater reclamationen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolInterdisciplinary Graduate School (IGS)en_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchAdvanced Environmental Biotechnology Centre (AEBC)en_US
dc.contributor.researchNanyang Environment and Water Research Instituteen_US
dc.subject.keywordsStep-feed Reactoren_US
dc.subject.keywordsMainstream Deammonificationen_US
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