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dc.contributor.authorChan, Siew Herngen_US
dc.contributor.authorMuhammad Hafiz Ismailen_US
dc.contributor.authorTan, Chuan Haoen_US
dc.contributor.authorRice, Scott A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMcDougald, Dianeen_US
dc.identifier.citationChan, S. H., Muhammad Hafiz Ismail, Tan, C. H., Rice, S. A. & McDougald, D. (2021). Microbial predation accelerates granulation and modulates microbial community composition. BMC Microbiology, 21, 91-.
dc.description.abstractBacterial communities are responsible for biological nutrient removal and flocculation in engineered systems such as activated floccular sludge. Predators such as bacteriophage and protozoa exert significant predation pressure and cause bacterial mortality within these communities. However, the roles of bacteriophage and protozoan predation in impacting granulation process remain limited. Recent studies hypothesised that protozoa, particularly sessile ciliates, could have an important role in granulation as these ciliates were often observed in high abundance on surfaces of granules. Bacteriophages were hypothesized to contribute to granular stability through bacteriophage-mediated extracellular DNA release by lysing bacterial cells. This current study investigated the bacteriophage and protozoan communities throughout the granulation process. In addition, the importance of protozoan predation during granulation was also determined through chemical killing of protozoa in the floccular sludge.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofBMC Microbiologyen_US
dc.rights© The Author(s). 2021 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.en_US
dc.subjectScience::Biological sciences::Microbiologyen_US
dc.titleMicrobial predation accelerates granulation and modulates microbial community compositionen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolInterdisciplinary Graduate School (IGS)en_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Biological Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Materials Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchSingapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences and Engineeringen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsWater Remediationen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis research was supported by the Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering (SCELSE), whose research is supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore, Ministry of Education, Nanyang Technological University and National University of Singapore, under its Research Centre of Excellence Programme. MH Ismail was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore under its National Research Foundation (NRF) Environmental and Water Technologies (EWT) PhD Scholarship Programme, administered by the Environment and Water Industry Programme Office (EWI).en_US
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