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dc.contributor.authorKrisnadi, Febbyen_US
dc.contributor.authorPethe, Shreyasen_US
dc.contributor.authorLim, Ryan Kwang Jenen_US
dc.contributor.authorKulkarni, Mohit Rameshchandraen_US
dc.contributor.authorAccoto, Dinoen_US
dc.contributor.authorMathews, Nripanen_US
dc.identifier.citationAnkit, Krisnadi, F., Pethe, S., Lim, R. K. J., Kulkarni, M. R., Accoto, D. & Mathews, N. (2021). MXene incorporated polymeric hybrids for stiffness modulation in printed adaptive surfaces. Nano Energy, 90(Part A), 106548-.
dc.description.abstractPolymeric materials systems developed for actuators and human-machine interfaces suffer from limitations associated with effective force output due to their low mechanical modulus. New material solutions which can provide intrinsic multi-modal responses are needed to reversibly modulate rigidity; to be flexible, stretchable and bendable one moment, and to be rigid, able to bear load and resist deformation at another moment. Thermally modulated phase transition materials are promising for modulation of mechanical properties; however, they have not been explored for electrically driven shape morphing and responsive surfaces which require favourable electrical properties too. Polymers like polyethylene glycol (PEG) allow for low melting point (56 ℃) and high dielectric constant (10), however they are limited by slow crystallization kinetics and large temperature window. We architect an MXene incorporated PEG-water hybrid which allows for both reduction in melting point and rapid heterogeneous nucleation, which in turn increases the crystallization point. Multimodal response is demonstrated via thermal and electrical input, resulting in modulation of 700 times in Young's modulus, 100 times in flexural modulus and 10 times in hardness as well as large actuation strains (~28%) at low electric fields (~0.7 V/µm). They can be printed to create hardness domains, allowing for local and programmable modulation. An all-printed haptic device with an array of 3 × 3 pixels has been demonstrated, capable of independently varying the hardness values for each pixel.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.relationMOE2018-T1- 002-179en_US
dc.relation.ispartofNano Energyen_US
dc.rights© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This paper was published in Nano Energy and is made available with permission of Elsevier Ltd.en_US
dc.titleMXene incorporated polymeric hybrids for stiffness modulation in printed adaptive surfacesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Materials Science and Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchEnergy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N)en_US
dc.description.versionAccepted versionen_US
dc.identifier.issuePart Aen_US
dc.subject.keywordsRigidity Modulationen_US
dc.subject.keywordsAdaptive Surfacesen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThe authors would like to acknowledge the funding support for this project from Ministry of Education (MOE) Tier 1 grant (MOE2018-T1- 002-179) (Singapore).en_US
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