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dc.contributor.authorNur Izzati Zainuddinen_US
dc.contributor.authorMuhammad Roil Biladen_US
dc.contributor.authorLisendra Marbeliaen_US
dc.contributor.authorWiratni Budhijantoen_US
dc.contributor.authorNasrul Arahmanen_US
dc.contributor.authorAfrilia Fahrinaen_US
dc.contributor.authorNorazanita Shamsuddinen_US
dc.contributor.authorZaki Ismail Zakien_US
dc.contributor.authorZeinhom M. El-Bahyen_US
dc.contributor.authorAsep Bayu Dani Nandiyantoen_US
dc.contributor.authorGunawan, Poernomoen_US
dc.identifier.citationNur Izzati Zainuddin, Muhammad Roil Bilad, Lisendra Marbelia, Wiratni Budhijanto, Nasrul Arahman, Afrilia Fahrina, Norazanita Shamsuddin, Zaki Ismail Zaki, Zeinhom M. El-Bahy, Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto & Gunawan, P. (2021). Sequencing batch integrated fixed-film activated sludge membrane process for treatment of tapioca processing wastewater. Membranes, 11(11), 875-.
dc.description.abstractTapioca processing industries are very popular in the rural community to produce a variety of foods as the end products. Due to their small scales and scattered locations, they require robust modular systems to operate at low capacity with minimum supervision. This study explores the application of a novel sequencing batch-integrated fixed-film activated sludge membrane (SB-IFASM) process to treat tapioca processing wastewater for reuse purposes. The SB-IFASM employed a gravity-driven system and utilizes biofilm to enhance biodegradation without requiring membrane cleaning. The SB-IFASM utilizes the biofilm as a secondary biodegradation stage to enhance the permeate quality applicable for reuse. A lab-scale SB-IFASM was developed, preliminarily assessed, and used to treat synthetic tapioca processing industry wastewater. The results of short-term filtration tests showed the significant impact of hydrostatic pressure on membrane compaction and instant cake layer formation. Increasing the pressure from 2.2 to 10 kPa lowered the permeability of clean water and activated sludge from 720 to 425 and from 110 to 50 L/m2·h bar, respectively. The unsteady-state operation of the SB-IFASM showed the prominent role of the bio-cake in removing the organics reaching the permeate quality suitable for reuse. High COD removals of 63–98% demonstrated the prominence contribution of the biofilm in enhancing biological performance and ultimate COD removals of >93% make it very attractive for application in small-scale tapioca processing industries. However, the biological ecosystem was unstable, as shown by foaming that deteriorated permeability and was detrimental to the organic removal. Further developments are still required, particularly to address the biological stability and low permeability.en_US
dc.rights© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
dc.subjectEngineering::Chemical engineering::Water in chemical industryen_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Chemical engineering::Processes and operationsen_US
dc.titleSequencing batch integrated fixed-film activated sludge membrane process for treatment of tapioca processing wastewateren_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Chemical and Biomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysiaen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversiti Brunei Darussalamen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesiaen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversitas Syiah Kuala, Indonesiaen_US
dc.contributor.organizationUniversitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesiaen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsTapioca Processing Wastewateren_US
dc.subject.keywordsGravity-Driven Membrane Filtrationen_US
dc.subject.keywordsIntegrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludgeen_US
dc.subject.keywordsMembrane Filtrationen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis work was financially supported by the Taif University Researchers Supporting Project (TURSP-2020/42), Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.en_US
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