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dc.contributor.authorHeath, Theodoren_US
dc.contributor.authorBarnes, Mikeen_US
dc.contributor.authorJudge, Paul D.en_US
dc.contributor.authorChaffey, Gerainten_US
dc.contributor.authorClemow, Philen_US
dc.contributor.authorGreen, Tim C.en_US
dc.contributor.authorGreen, Peter R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWylie, Jamesen_US
dc.contributor.authorKonstantinou, Georgiosen_US
dc.contributor.authorCeballos, Salvadoren_US
dc.contributor.authorPou, Josepen_US
dc.contributor.authorBelhaouane, Mohamed Moezen_US
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Haiboen_US
dc.contributor.authorGuillaud, Xavieren_US
dc.contributor.authorAndrews, Jacken_US
dc.identifier.citationHeath, T., Barnes, M., Judge, P. D., Chaffey, G., Clemow, P., Green, T. C., Green, P. R., Wylie, J., Konstantinou, G., Ceballos, S., Pou, J., Belhaouane, M. M., Zhang, H., Guillaud, X. & Andrews, J. (2021). Cascaded- and modular-multilevel converter laboratory test system options: a review. IEEE Access, 9, 44718-44737.
dc.description.abstractThe increasing importance of cascaded multilevel converters (CMCs), and the sub-category of modular multilevel converters (MMCs), is illustrated by their wide use in high voltage DC connections and in static compensators. Research is being undertaken into the use of these complex pieces of hardware and software for a variety of grid support services, on top of fundamental frequency power injection, requiring improved control for non-traditional duties. To validate these results, small-scale laboratory hardware prototypes are often required. Such systems have been built by many research teams around the globe and are also increasingly commercially available. Few publications go into detail on the construction options for prototype CMCs, and there is a lack of information on both design considerations and lessons learned from the build process, which will hinder research and the best application of these important units. This paper reviews options, gives key examples from leading research teams, and summarizes knowledge gained in the development of test rigs to clarify design considerations when constructing laboratory-scale CMCs.en_US
dc.relation.ispartofIEEE Accessen_US
dc.rights© 2021 IEEE. This journal is 100% open access, which means that all content is freely available without charge to users or their institutions. All articles accepted after 12 June 2019 are published under a CC BY 4.0 license, and the author retains copyright. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, as long as proper attribution is given.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Electrical and electronic engineeringen_US
dc.titleCascaded- and modular-multilevel converter laboratory test system options : a reviewen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Electrical and Electronic Engineeringen_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsAC-DC Power Convertersen_US
dc.subject.keywordsHVDC Transmissionen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis work was supported in part by The University of Manchester supported by the National Innovation Allowance project ‘‘VSC-HVDC Model Validation and Improvement’’ and Dr. Heath’s iCASE Ph.D. studentship supported through Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and National Grid, in part by the Imperial College London supported by EPSRC through the HubNet Extension under Grant EP/N030028/1, in part by an iCASE Ph.D. Studentship supported by EPSRC and EDF Energy and the CDT in Future Power Networks under Grant EP/L015471/1, in part by University of New South Wales (UNSW) supported by the Solar Flagships Program through the Education Infrastructure Fund (EIF), in part by the Australian Research Council through the Discovery Early Career Research Award under Grant DECRA–DE170100370, in part by the Basque Government through the project HVDC-LINK3 under Grant ELKARTEK KK-2017/00083, in part by the L2EP research group at the University of Lille supported by the French TSO (RTE), and in part by the Hauts-de-France region of France with the European Regional Development Fund under Grant FEDER 17007725.en_US
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