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dc.contributor.authorZhang, Liweien_US
dc.contributor.authorWaters, Robin F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMacdonald, Kevin F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorZheludev, Nikolay I.en_US
dc.identifier.citationZhang, L., Waters, R. F., Macdonald, K. F. & Zheludev, N. I. (2021). Cellular automata dynamics of nonlinear optical processes in a phase-change material. Applied Physics Reviews, 8(1), 011404-.
dc.description.abstractChanges in the arrangement of atoms in matter, known as structural phase transitions or phase changes, offer a remarkable range of opportunities in photonics. They are exploited in optical data storage and laser-based manufacturing, and have been explored as underpinning mechanisms for controlling laser dynamics, optical and plasmonic modulation, and low-energy switching in single nanoparticle devices and metamaterials. Comprehensive modeling of phase-change processes in photonics is, however, extremely challenging as it involves a number of entangled processes including atomic/molecular structural change, domain and crystallization dynamics, change of optical properties in inhomogeneous composite media, and the transport and dissipation of heat and light, which happen on time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. Here, for the first time, we show that the description of such complex nonlinear optical processes in phase-change materials can be reduced to a cellular automata model. Using the important example of a polymorphic gallium film, we show that a cellular model based on only a few independent and physically-interpretable parameters can reproduce the experimentally measured behaviors of gallium all-optical switches over a wide range of optical excitation regimes. The cellular automata methodology has considerable heuristic value for the study of complex nonlinear optical processes without the need to understand details of atomic dynamics, band structure, and energy conservation at the nanoscale.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofApplied Physics Reviewsen_US
dc.rights© 2021 Author(s). Published under license by AIP Publishing.en_US
dc.titleCellular automata dynamics of nonlinear optical processes in a phase-change materialen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Physical and Mathematical Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.researchCentre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT)en_US
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsCellular Automata Modelingen_US
dc.subject.keywordsComprehensive Modelen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis work was supported by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Grant EP/M009122/1), the Singapore Ministry of Education (Grant MOE2016-T3–1–006), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant U1804165).en_US
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