Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/10356/153766
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dc.contributor.authorTan, Laurenceen_US
dc.contributor.authorLe, Mai Khanhen_US
dc.contributor.authorYu, Chou Chuenen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiaw, Sok Yingen_US
dc.contributor.authorTierney, Tanyaen_US
dc.contributor.authorHo, Yun Yingen_US
dc.contributor.authorLim, Evelynen_US
dc.contributor.authorLim, Daphneen_US
dc.contributor.authorNg, Reubenen_US
dc.contributor.authorNgeow, Colinen_US
dc.contributor.authorLow, Jamesen_US
dc.date.accessioned2021-12-27T04:02:42Z-
dc.date.available2021-12-27T04:02:42Z-
dc.date.issued2021-
dc.identifier.citationTan, L., Le, M. K., Yu, C. C., Liaw, S. Y., Tierney, T., Ho, Y. Y., Lim, E., Lim, D., Ng, R., Ngeow, C. & Low, J. (2021). Defining clinical empathy : a grounded theory approach from the perspective of healthcare workers and patients in a multicultural setting. BMJ Open, 11(9), e045224-. https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045224en_US
dc.identifier.issn2044-6055en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10356/153766-
dc.description.abstractObjective To define clinical empathy from the perspective of healthcare workers and patients from a multicultural setting. Design Grounded theory approach using focus group discussions. Setting A health cluster in Singapore consisting of an acute hospital, a community hospital, ambulatory care teams, a medical school and a nursing school. Participants 69 participants including doctors, nurses, medical students, nursing students, patients and allied health workers. Main outcome measures A robust definition of clinical empathy. Results The construct of clinical empathy is consistent across doctors, nurses, students, allied health and students. Medical empathy consists of an inner sense of empathy (imaginative, affective and cognitive), empathy behaviour (genuine concern and empathic communication) and a sense of connection (trust and rapport). This construct of clinical empathy is similar to definitions by neuroscientists but challenges a common definition of clinical empathy as a cognitive process with emotional detachment. Conclusions This paper has defined clinical empathy as ‘a sense of connection between the healthcare worker and the patient as a result of perspective taking arising from imaginative, affective and cognitive processes, which are expressed through behaviours and good communication skills that convey genuine concern’. A clear and multidimensional definition of clinical empathy will improve future education and research efforts in the application and impact of clinical empathy.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.relationGERI1616en_US
dc.relation.ispartofBMJ Openen_US
dc.rights© 2021 The Author(s) (or their employer(s)). Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.en_US
dc.subjectScience::Medicineen_US
dc.titleDefining clinical empathy : a grounded theory approach from the perspective of healthcare workers and patients in a multicultural settingen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolLee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine)en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045224-
dc.description.versionPublished versionen_US
dc.identifier.issue9en_US
dc.identifier.volume11en_US
dc.identifier.spagee045224en_US
dc.subject.keywordsEducation & Trainingen_US
dc.subject.keywordsQuality in Health Careen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis work was supported by Geriatric Education & Research Institute’s intramural fund (reference number GERI1616). All authors had full access to all of the data (including statistical reports and tables) in the study and can take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.en_US
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