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Title: Prevalence and correlates of social stigma toward diabetes: results from a nationwide- survey in Singapore
Authors: Subramaniam, Mythily
Abdin, Edimansyah
Bhuvaneswari, S.
AshaRani, P. V.
Devi, Fiona
Roystonn, Kumarasan
Wang, Peizhi
Samari, Ellaisha
Shafie, Saleha
Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit
van Dam, Rob M.
Lee, Eng Sing
Sum, Chee Fang
Chong, Siow Ann
Keywords: Science::Medicine
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Subramaniam, M., Abdin, E., Bhuvaneswari, S., AshaRani, P. V., Devi, F., Roystonn, K., Wang, P., Samari, E., Shafie, S., Vaingankar, J. A., van Dam, R. M., Lee, E. S., Sum, C. F. & Chong, S. A. (2021). Prevalence and correlates of social stigma toward diabetes: results from a nationwide- survey in Singapore. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 692573-.
Project: NMRC/HSRG/0085/2018 
Journal: Frontiers in Psychology 
Abstract: Aims: To examine the extent of social stigma toward diabetes among Singapore's multi-ethnic general population and determine whether this differs across socio-demographic sub-groups. Methods: Data for this study came from a nationwide cross-sectional study. A diabetes stigma questionnaire comprising Social Distance Scale and Negative Attitudes and Stereotyping Scale was administered to those respondents who had not been diagnosed with diabetes. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the dimensionality of the instruments and validated using confirmatory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between socio-demographic factors and measures of diabetes stigma. Results: In all, 2,895 participants were recruited from the general population giving a response rate of 66.2%. Factor analyses found that a one-factor model resulted in an acceptable fit for both stigma scales, which measured social distance and negative attitudes and stereotyping, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses identified Indian ethnicity (vs. Chinese), higher personal income (≥SGD2000 vs. < SGD 2000) and having close friends or family members who had been diagnosed with diabetes to be significantly associated with lower social distance scores while those aged 50-64 years and those with secondary and vocational education (vs. degree and above) were significantly associated with higher social distance scores. Those with a personal income of SG$2,000-3,999 and SGD $6,000 and above, and those with close friends or family members diagnosed with diabetes were significantly associated with lower negative attitudes and stereotyping scores. In contrast those aged 35 years and above, those with primary education and below, and those of Malay ethnicity were significantly associated with higher negative attitudes and stereotyping scores. Conclusions: The study found a relatively low level of stigma toward diabetes in the general population of Singapore, although some stigmatizing beliefs emerged. While greater knowledge of diabetes could reduce stigma, anti-stigma messaging should be incorporated into the "War on Diabetes" programme in Singapore.
ISSN: 1664-1078
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.692573
Schools: Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine (LKCMedicine) 
Organisations: National Healthcare Group Polyclinics
Rights: © 2021 Subramaniam, Abdin, Bhuvaneswari, AshaRani, Devi, Roystonn,Wang, Samari, Shafie, Vaingankar, van Dam, Lee, Sum and Chong. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:LKCMedicine Journal Articles

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