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dc.contributor.authorNarasimman, Neelakantanen_US
dc.contributor.authorKim, Tony Tae-Hyoungen_US
dc.identifier.citationNarasimman, N. & Kim, T. T. (2021). An ultra-low-voltage VCO-based ΔΣ modulator using self-compensated current reference for variation tolerance. Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing, 40, 1089-1110.
dc.description.abstractThis paper introduces a voltage-controlled-oscillator-based (VCO-based) first-order delta-sigma (ΔΣ) modulator that uses a novel current reference to improve the robustness of the modulator at ultra-low operating voltages. The proposed current reference harnesses the difference in transistor characteristics between weak inversion and moderate inversion to generate residue voltage, which is a function of process and temperature variations. The current generated by the proposed reference is used to bias a fully differential VCO integrator and a feedback current digital-to-analog conversion in the delta-sigma modulator for variation tolerance. Test chips designed and fabricated in 65-nm CMOS technology operate successfully at 0.3 V and achieve SNDR of 56.1 dB across 10 kHz bandwidth while consuming only 510 nW of power. This corresponds to a state-of-the-art figure of merit of 49 fJ/conv.-step. Measurement results for the proposed current reference and the modulator also demonstrate 3 × and 20 × improvement in process and temperature variation tolerance, respectively, while operating at such low voltages.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofCircuits, Systems, and Signal Processingen_US
dc.rights© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Electrical and electronic engineeringen_US
dc.titleAn ultra-low-voltage VCO-based ΔΣ modulator using self-compensated current reference for variation toleranceen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Electrical and Electronic Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.organizationA*STAR Institute of Microelectronicsen_US
dc.subject.keywordsVCO-Based ΔΣ Modulatoren_US
dc.subject.keywordsUltra-Low Voltageen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThe research of the project was supported by Ministry of Education, Singapore, under Grant AcRF TIER 1- 2018-T1-002-105 (RG 174/18).en_US
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