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Title: Sol-gel synthesis of highly reproducible WO₃ photoanodes for solar water oxidation = 溶胶-凝胶法制备高重复性的WO₃光阳极用于太 阳能水氧化反应
Authors: Feng, Jianyong
Zhao, Xin
Zhang, Bowei
Yang, Guang
Qian, Qinfeng
Ma, Su Su Khine
Chen, Zhong
Li, Zhaosheng
Huang, Yizhong
Keywords: Engineering::Materials
Issue Date: 2020
Source: Feng, J., Zhao, X., Zhang, B., Yang, G., Qian, Q., Ma, S. S. K., Chen, Z., Li, Z. & Huang, Y. (2020). Sol-gel synthesis of highly reproducible WO₃ photoanodes for solar water oxidation = 溶胶-凝胶法制备高重复性的WO₃光阳极用于太 阳能水氧化反应. Science China Materials, 63(11), 2261-2271.
Project: M4011959
Journal: Science China Materials
Abstract: Although monoclinic WO₃ is widely studied as a prototypical photoanode material for solar water splitting, limited success, hitherto, in fabricating WO₃ photoanodes that simultaneously demonstrate high efficiency and reproducibility has been realized. The difficulty in controlling both the efficiency and reproducibility is derived from the ever-changing structures/compositions and chemical environments of the precursors, such as peroxytungstic acid and freshly prepared tungstic acid, which render the fabrication processes of the WO₃ photoanodes particularly uncontrollable. Herein, a highly reproducible sol-gel process was developed to establish efficient and translucent WO₃ photoanodes using a chemically stable ammonium metatungstate precursor. Under standard simulated sunlight of air mass 1.5 G, 100 mW cm−2, the WO₃ photoanode delivered photocurrent densities of ca. 2.05 and 2.25 mA cm−2 at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), when tested in 1 mol L−1 H₂SO₄ and CH₃SO₃H, respectively. Hence, the WO₃ photoanodes fabricated herein are one of the WO₃ photoanodes with the highest performance ever reported. The reproducibility of the fabrication scheme was evaluated by testing 50 randomly selected WO₃ samples in 1 mol L−1 H2SO4, which yielded an average photocurrent density of 1.8 mA cm−2 at 1.23 VRHE with a small standard deviation. Additionally, the effectiveness of the ammonium metatungstate precursor solution was maintained for at least 3 weeks, when compared with the associated upper-limit values of peroxytungstic and tungstic acid based precursors after 3 d. This study presents a key step to the future development of WO₃ photoanodes for efficient solar water splitting.
ISSN: 2095-8226
DOI: 10.1007/s40843-020-1430-4
Schools: School of Materials Science and Engineering 
Rights: © Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020
Fulltext Permission: none
Fulltext Availability: No Fulltext
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