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dc.contributor.authorWang, Mengjingen_US
dc.contributor.authorJia, Shenglanen_US
dc.contributor.authorLee, Suk Hyunen_US
dc.contributor.authorChow, Agnesen_US
dc.contributor.authorFang, Mingliangen_US
dc.identifier.citationWang, M., Jia, S., Lee, S. H., Chow, A. & Fang, M. (2021). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor environments are still imposing carcinogenic risk. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 409, 124531-.
dc.description.abstractPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most health-relevant air pollutants. Herein, we conducted meta-analysis and experimental validation to evaluate PAHs in our surroundings and carcinogenic risks. We summarized the occurrence of PAHs in outdoors and indoors from 131 studies with 6,766 samples collected in different countries in 1989-2019. The global weighted-median concentration in outdoor air, indoor air and dust of ΣPAHs were 142 ng/m3, 369 ng/m3 and 10,201 ng/g; respectively. ΣPAHs have decreased in indoor air but remained steady in outdoor air and indoor dust. More carcinogenic PAHs in indoor/outdoor air was observed in Asia, while in dust was North America. Monte-Carlo simulation further showed indoor sources for children's exposure from dust and air can exceed outdoor. To further validate the health effect of PAHs from indoors, 15 more recent indoor dust samples were collected to examine their mutagenicity. The results showed that ΣPAHs were found to be significantly correlated with mutagenicity potency in the dust sample metabolically activated with liver S9 subcellular fraction and likely accounted for 0.42-0.50 of the mutagenic activity. Our findings indicated that PAHs are still likely to have carcinogenic activity in indoor environments and exposure risk of children to indoor dust should be emphasized.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Health (MOH)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNanyang Technological Universityen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Environmental Agency (NEA)en_US
dc.relationCS-IRG MOH-000141en_US
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Hazardous Materialsen_US
dc.rights© 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Civil engineeringen_US
dc.titlePolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor environments are still imposing carcinogenic risken_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.researchNanyang Environment and Water Research Instituteen_US
dc.subject.keywordsIndoor Dusten_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis work is supported by the Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 (04MNP000567C120), NTU-Harvard SusNano (M4082370.030), the National Environment Agency - Singapore Naph Any Ane Fle Phe Ant P y r F la B (a)A Chry B(b)F B (k)F B(a)P I(cd)P D(ah)A B (ghi)P 1 10 100 1000 10000 ng/g 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Indoor Dus t (n=15) Contribution (%) Naph Any Ane Fle P he Ant Fla Pyr B(a)A C hry B(b)F B(k)F B(a)P I(cd)P D(ah)A B(ghi)P A B C 600 6000 1000 10000 Mutagenic potency (revertants /g) PAH concentration (ng g) / R 2 =0.50, p < 0.05 B2 PAH PAH R 2 =0.42, p < 0.05 Fig. 5. Concentrations of individual PAHs (A) in box plot and profiling (B) of PAHs in indoor dust from this study (n = 15). Correlations between the total B2 PAHs, ΣPAHs and the mutagenic potency of house dust on TA98 with S9 activation (C). Nap = Naphthalene, Any = acenaphthylene, Ane = acenaphthene, Flu = fluorene, Phe = phenanthrene, Ant = anthracene, Fla = fluoranthene, Pyr = pyrene, B[a]A = benzo[a]anthracene, Chry = chrysene, B[b]F = benzo[b]fluoranthene, B[k] F = benzo[k]fluoranthene, B[a]P = benzo[a]pyrene, I(cd)P = indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, D[ah]A = dibenz[a,h]anthracene (D[ah]A), and B[ghi]P = benzo[g,h, i]perylene. M. Wang et al. Journal of Hazardous Materials 409 (2021) 124531 7 (04SBS000714N025), and Singapore Ministry of Health’s National Medical Research Council under its Clinician-Scientist Individual Research Grant (CS-IRG) (MOH-000141) and Open Fund-Individual Research Grant (OFIRG/0076/2018).en_US
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