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dc.contributor.authorKumar, Durgeshen_US
dc.contributor.authorJin, Tianlien_US
dc.contributor.authorSbiaa, Rachiden_US
dc.contributor.authorKläui, Mathiasen_US
dc.contributor.authorBedanta, Subhankaren_US
dc.contributor.authorFukami, Shunsukeen_US
dc.contributor.authorRavelosona, Dafineen_US
dc.contributor.authorYang, See-Hunen_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Xiaoxien_US
dc.contributor.authorPiramanayagam, S. N.en_US
dc.identifier.citationKumar, D., Jin, T., Sbiaa, R., Kläui, M., Bedanta, S., Fukami, S., Ravelosona, D., Yang, S., Liu, X. & Piramanayagam, S. N. (2022). Domain wall memory: physics, materials, and devices. Physics Reports, 958, 1-35.
dc.description.abstractDigital data, generated by corporate and individual users, is growing day by day due to a vast range of digital applications. Magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs) currently fulfill the demand for storage space, required by this data growth. Although flash memory devices are replacing HDDs in applications like mobile phones, laptops, and desktops, HDDs cover the majority of digital data stored in the cloud and servers. Since the capacity growth of HDDs is slowing down, it is essential to look for a potential alternative. One such alternative is domain wall (DW) memory, where magnetic domains in the form of two-dimensional or three-dimensional wires are used to store the information. DW memory (DWM) devices should satisfy the four basic operations, such as writing (nucleating domains or inserting DWs in memory element), storing (stabilizing DWs), shifting (moving DWs), and reading (reading magnetization direction). An external magnetic field or spin-transfer torque can be used to write the information. Spin–orbit torque or electric field may be used for shifting the DWs. The information can be read using tunneling magnetoresistance. The domains may be stored along the tracks using artificial pinning potentials. The absence of moving parts makes the DWM consume less power as compared to HDDs, and be more robust. The potential to stack many layers to store information in three dimensions makes them potentially a large storage capacity device. In addition to memory, DW devices also offer a route for making synaptic devices for neuromorphic computing. Despite these potential advantages of DWM, significant advances in research are needed before DWM could become commercially viable. One of the major challenges associated with DWM is DW dynamics. Many problems, such as controlled DW motion, the stability of domains, reducing the dimensions of the DW devices are still to be addressed. Artificial pinning sites fabricated through either geometrical or non-geometrical methods have been proposed for controlling DW motion. This review paper presents a survey of the investigations carried out so far and the future perspective of such devices.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMinistry of Education (MOE)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNanyang Technological Universityen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Research Foundation (NRF)en_US
dc.relationNTU SUGen_US
dc.relation.ispartofPhysics Reportsen_US
dc.rights© 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This paper was published in Physics Reports and is made available with permission of Elsevier B.V.en_US
dc.titleDomain wall memory: physics, materials, and devicesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Physical and Mathematical Sciencesen_US
dc.description.versionSubmitted/Accepted versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsMagnetic Domain Wallsen_US
dc.subject.keywordsDomain Wall Devicesen_US
dc.description.acknowledgementSNP thanks the National Research Foundation of Singapore, Prime Minister’s Office for Competitive Research Programme (Spin–Orbit Coupling based IntelligencE TechnologY (SOCIETY), NRF-CRP21-2018-0003) grant. SNP also acknowledges the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore start-up grant (NTU-SUG), MOE Tier 2 grant MOE2019-T2-1-117 of the Ministry of Education (MOE) Singapore and National Research Foundation of Singapore-IIP Grant (NRF2015-IIP-003- 001) for the partial financial support. DK thanks the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore research scholarship for financial support. MK thanks the German Research Foundation (DFG #268565370) for support.en_US
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