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Title: Green closed-loop cathode regeneration from spent NMC-based lithium-ion batteries through bioleaching
Authors: Do, Minh Phuong
Roy, Joseph Jegan
Cao, Bin
Srinivasan, Madhavi
Keywords: Science::Chemistry
Issue Date: 2022
Source: Do, M. P., Roy, J. J., Cao, B. & Srinivasan, M. (2022). Green closed-loop cathode regeneration from spent NMC-based lithium-ion batteries through bioleaching. ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 10(8), 2634-2644.
Project: SCARCE USS-IF-2018-4 
Journal: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering 
Abstract: Addressing the growing volume of end-of-life lithium-ion battery (LIB) waste is one of the global challenges in tackling the electronic waste problem. In this study, the regeneration of LiNi0.3Co0.3Mn0.3O2 (NMC111) and Li- Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (NMC622) cathode-active materials from end of- life LIBs was accomplished through an environmentally friendly bioleaching process. In the bioleaching process mediated by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, 85.5% of Ni, 91.8% of Mn, 90.4% of Co, and 89.9% of Li were leached out from NMC-based spent LIBs in 6 h at a pulp density of 100 g/L. One of the challenges in bioleaching-based metal recovery is the presence of impurities, including Cu, Al, and Fe (excess Fe3+ and Fe2+ from bacterial nutrients). The impurity removal was performed by air oxidation and pH adjustment without substantial losses of other metallic ions. Thereafter, ammonium oxalate coprecipitation effectively recovered the transition metal ions as metal oxalates from the bioleaching liquor. NMC111 and NMC622 were regenerated from the coprecipitated product. The electrochemical stability of the regenerated NMC111 and NMC622 was comparable to commercial NMC (∼85% of capacity retention after 50 cycles at 100 mA g−1). This regeneration approach appears promising in LIB recycling for long-term industrial development.
ISSN: 2168-0485
DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.1c06885
Schools: School of Materials Science and Engineering 
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering 
Research Centres: Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N) 
Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences and Engineering (SCELSE) 
Rights: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see
Fulltext Permission: open
Fulltext Availability: With Fulltext
Appears in Collections:CEE Journal Articles
ERI@N Journal Articles
MSE Journal Articles
SCELSE Journal Articles

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