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dc.contributor.authorSaxena, Ashishen_US
dc.contributor.authorNg, Eddie Yin Kweeen_US
dc.contributor.authorCanchi, Tejasen_US
dc.contributor.authorLim, Jia Leren_US
dc.contributor.authorBeruvar, Ayush Singhen_US
dc.identifier.citationSaxena, A., Ng, E. Y. K., Canchi, T., Lim, J. L. & Beruvar, A. S. (2021). A method to produce high contrast vein visualization in active dynamic thermography (ADT). Computers in Biology and Medicine, 132, 104309-.
dc.description.abstractIn this study, a method that will aid in the visualization of vein topology on a target area on the body of a human subject is demonstrated. An external cooling means is configured to cool the left forearm of fourteen study participants, effecting an active thermal change or recovery in the target area upon removal of cooling. An infrared (IR) thermal camera was used to capture a series of transient thermal images. These images were then processed to extract Dynamic synthetic images (SI) throughout the active thermal change or recovery process. Dynamic SI was calculated using a quantitative parameter called tissue activity ratio (TAR), which is defined by the rate of rewarming to the rate of cooling at each pixel of interest. A fixed step size of rewarming temperature (0.5 °C) was used to progressively extract multiple synthetic images throughout the whole recovery process. Compared to a Static SI extraction method, where only a single SI results from the whole active dynamic thermography (ADT) sequence, this study demonstrates a live feed of high contrast vein visualizations by using the Dynamic SI method. Furthermore, the dependency of Dynamic SI contrast on the temperature of the external cooling stimulation was investigated. Three cooling stimulation temperatures (5 °C, 8 °C, and 11 °C) were tested, where no statistically significant difference in the resulting SI contrast was found. Lastly, a discussion is put forth on assisting venipuncture or cannulation-based clinical applications, through the incorporation of the proposed method with a projection system.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNanyang Technological Universityen_US
dc.relation.ispartofComputers in Biology and Medicineen_US
dc.rights© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This paper was published in Computers in Biology and Medicine and is made available with permission of Elsevier Ltd.en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Mechanical engineeringen_US
dc.titleA method to produce high contrast vein visualization in active dynamic thermography (ADT)en_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.contributor.schoolSchool of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineeringen_US
dc.description.versionSubmitted/Accepted versionen_US
dc.subject.keywordsActive Dynamic Thermographyen_US
dc.subject.keywordsImage Contrasten_US
dc.description.acknowledgementThis study was supported by the SingHealth-NTU collaborative research grant (Grant number: SHS-NTU/014/2016).en_US
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