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dc.contributor.authorVismara, Lucaen_US
dc.identifier.citationVismara, L. (2022). The complexity in transportation systems: the study of a bus loop. Doctoral thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
dc.description.abstractWe present a study of buses serving commuters through bus stops located in a loop as a complex system. We adopt the approaches of mathematical analysis, agent-based simulations, and machine learning in this study. Our aim is to attain bus scheduling configurations that minimise the average waiting time of the commuters. By performing simplified dynamical and statistical formulations, we delve into the essence of bus-to-bus and bus-to-commuters interactions. Our mathematical analysis cum computer simula- tions uncovered the effects of the interactions on (a) the rate at which buses bunches; (b) the efficiency of a proposed synchronized bunched bus configuration in serving a bus loop where commuters arrive in periodic spikes in one of the bus stops; and (c) the benefits of decoupling a set of bus stops to form the express bus configuration. Through the ma- chine learning technique of reinforcement learning, we found that holding and no-boarding strategies emerge as the elementary low-level actions for active control of staggered buses to optimally serve regular bus stops. Moreover, reinforcement learning had revealed that a novel semi-express bus configuration is an optimal set-up for an autonomous bus loop system, with the enhanced performance a consequence of the system situating at the edge-of-chaos.en_US
dc.publisherNanyang Technological Universityen_US
dc.rightsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).en_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Mathematics and analysisen_US
dc.subjectEngineering::Civil engineering::Transportationen_US
dc.titleThe complexity in transportation systems: the study of a bus loopen_US
dc.typeThesis-Doctor of Philosophyen_US
dc.contributor.supervisorChew Lock Yueen_US
dc.contributor.schoolInterdisciplinary Graduate School (IGS)en_US
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen_US
dc.contributor.researchComplexity Instituteen_US
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